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ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COINS


ANCIENT CHINESE KNIFE COIN Restocked

China Ming type knife Coin
Knives were a common barter item in ancient China, but a bit hazardous to carry around to trade. Some of China's first coins were made to look like a knife, so that people would think of them as money, but they lacked a sharp blade. A hole was included for easy stringing. This knife coin is called the "Ming" after the city where it was made (not the dynasty that was much later). It dates from about 400BC to 225BC and was widely used in northeastern China.   It is made of bronze and is about 5 inches (13cm.) long.
Item CN-KNIFE CHINA, MING TYPE KNIFE COIN, Circa 400BC - 225BC VG-Fine $55.00



AFFORDABLE EARLY ANCIENT SILVER COIN

Gandahara Janapada (Taxila) 1/2 Santamana circa 600-327BCThis is one of the most affordable early ancient silver coins available.  It was struck from about 600BC to 327BC in the area of northern Pakistan and north-eastern Afghanistan.  Some references attribute the coin to the region of Gandhara Janapada, while others attribute it to Taxila, which was the major city in that region.  One side of the slightly concave coin has the six petaled Taxila "flower" design that was used on most coins of the region at that time.  The other side is blank.  The coin is approximately 12 to 14mm in diameter. It is likely the coins were first struck shortly before the region was invaded by Persian emperor Darius the Great in 518BC.  The coins continued to be issued under Persian rule, probably until Alexander the Great conquered the region in 327BC.  The coin is denominated as 1/8 Santamanas. 
Item GANDHARA GANDHARA JANAPADA 1/8 SANTAMANA circa 600-327BC Fine-crude $35.00


SILVER TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT & SELEUCUS I

Macedonia, Alexander the Great 336-323BC, Silver TetradrachmAs a youth, Alexander was taught by Aristotle.  Upon the assassination of his father in 336BC, Alexander became the King of Macedonia at age 20. His army quickly conquered the Greek states and he then set off across Asia. With brilliant military and political tactics he conquered Egypt and the Persian Empire. He continued conquering all in his path.  In 326BC he reached India.  There, his weary army mutinied, refusing to go any further.  Alexander was forced to return.  He died three years later, after a prolonged banquet and drinking binge. Until his reign, Greek coins did not show mortals. But Alexander sought to proclaim himself as a God.  The coins of Alexander portray him as Hercules, dressed in a lion's skin.  The reverse shows Zeus seated. After the death of Alexander in 323BC his top generals fought for control of portions of his empire.  Seleucus I Nicator gained control of a vast territory stretching from Anatolia (now Turkey) to Persia to northwestern India, thus founding the Seleucid Empire.. After battles with Chandragupta of the Mauryan Empire in India they agreed to a peace treaty.  Seleucus gave up some territory.  In exchange Chandragupta gave him 500 war elephants, his daughter in marriage, aphrodisiacs and other gifts He was assassinated in 281BC during his campaign to take Macedonia and Thrace.  Seleucus struck Tetradrachms in the same style as Alexander's, however with the legend ΣEΛEYKOY (Seleucus) rather than AΛEXANΔΡOY (Alexander) on the reverse.
Item ALEX-TET ALEXANDER THE GREAT, 336-323BC, SILVER TETRADRACHM Fine $285.00
Item SEL-TET SELEUCUS I NIKATOR 305-281BC  SILVER TETRADRACHM Fine $295.00




INDO-GREEK SILVER DRACHM OF APOLLODOTUS II

Indo-Greek silver Drachm of Apollodotus II, 80-65BCThe Indo-Greeks descended from Alexander the Great, who conquered northern India in 326BC. They were the eastern most part of Hellenistic culture, ruling the area around Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India. They maintained Greek culture, religion and language, incorporating it with elements of Indian culture and language. Apollodotus II was one of the greatest Indo-Greek kings.  During his reign, from about 80 to 65BC he re-established much of the glory and territory of the Indo-Greek kingdoms.  After his death the Indo-Greek kingdom fragmented and soon disappeared.  This silver drachm of Apollodotus II reflects both the Greek and Indian culture.  The obverse depicts the bust of the king with a Greek legend that translates as "Of Apollodotus the Great, Savior & Father loving King".  The reverse depicts Athena Alkidemos standing and has the legend in Kharoshthi script that translates "Savior King Appolodotus".  He obviously thought well of himself.  The coin is approximately 17mm in diameter. It is an attractive and historic ancient silver coin from the farthest reaches of Greek culture.
Item IN-APOLLO INDO-GREEK SILVER DRACHM, APOLLODOTUS II ca.80-65BC $45.00



SILVER COIN OF CELTIC GAUL

Celtic Gaul silver Quinarius, circa 80-50BCCeltic Gaul consisted of a number of loosely affiliated tribes centered around what is now France. Their coinage was modeled after that of Greece and Roman coins that found their way into the region, however, lacking skills and literacy, their coins were much cruder and with degraded legends.  These silver Quinarius of Celtic Gaul are about 11 to 14mm in diameter.  One side has a crude depiction of the helmeted head of Roma, that was based on coins of the Roman Republic. The other side has a stylized horse.  The coins date from about 80 to 50BC, shortly before Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. 
Item CELT-GAUL CELTIC GAUL SILVER QUINARIUS, CIRCA 80-50 BC VG-F-Crude $65.00



NEWA SHORT-LIVED DYNASTY OF THREE SHORT REIGNING ROMAN EMPERORS

Roman BI Aurelianus of Carus, Carinus and Numerian, 282-284ADCarus was appointed prefect of the Pretorian Guard by Emperor Probus in 282.  Shortly after that Probus was murdered and Carus was proclaimed Emperor by his troops in August or September of that year.  He was 60 at the time.  It is unclear if Carus was involved in the murder Probus. He immediately raised his sons Carinus and Numerian to the rank Caesar. His older son, Carinus, was left in charge of the western portion of the Empire, while Numerian accompanied his father on military campaigns.  Carus successfully fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians along the Danube.  He then successfully attacked the Sassanid Empire, but he died in August 283, apparently having been struck by lightening.  Carinus and Numerian succeeded their father as co-emperors.  Carinus in Rome abandoned himself to all kinds of profligacy and excess. Reportedly, he managed to wed and divorce nine separate women during his short rule.  He is reported to have initiated persecution against those he considered to have previously treated him with insufficient respect.  The troops in the Sasanid campaign, now under Numerian, were spooked by the unnatural death of Carus, quickly retreated back to Roman territory.   Sometime between March and November 284 Numerian died or was murdered.  His death was hidden from the troops by his generals until November 284, when they choose Diocletian to be the next emperor.  Carinus left Rome at once and set out to battle Diocletian.  He died at the Battle of the Margus in July 285 what is now Serbia. Some reports state that Carinus was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced.  Others say that his army deserted him.  Either way, it brought and end to the short-lived dynasty.  All three coins are billon Aurelianianus (Antoninianus)  The coins are certified and graded by NGC and come in NGC slab holders. 

Item CARUS ROME, CARUS 282-283AD BI AURELIANIUS NGC VF $99.00
Item CARINUS ROME, CARINUS 283-285AD BI AURELIANIUS NGC VF $85.00
Item NUMERIAN ROME, NUMERIAN 283-284AD BI AURELIANIUS NGC VF $85.00





HELENA - MOTHER OF CONSTANTINE I AND DISCOVER OF THE TRUE CROSS

Rome: BI Nummus of Empress Helena 324-330AD in NGC slabRome: BI Nummus of Empress Helena 324-330ADHelena is said to have been a "stabularia", which was a stable maid or a bar maid.  Sometime before 270AD she met Constantius.  It is said that upon meeting they were wearing identical silver bracelets; Constantius saw her as his soulmate sent by God.  Around 272AD she gave birth to their son, Constantine.  Before 289AD Constantius divorced her in order to marry Theodora, the daughter of Emperor Maximian.  Helena remained close to her son and never remarried.  Constantius rose to become Emperor upon the death of Maximian in 305AD.  He died the following year and Constantine became co-emperor.  After facing a series of revolts, Constantine finally gained sole control the Roman Empire by 324AD.  In 325AD Constantine gave his mother the title of Augusta (Empress) and began to have coins struck for her.  Like Constantine, she became a Christian.  From 326 to 328AD she undertook a pilgrimage to Palestine.  While there she constructed or beautified the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, and the Church of Eleona on the Mount of Olives, sites of Christ's birth and ascension, respectively.  She is also said to have discovered the True Cross under a Roman Temple.  Constantine ordered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to be built upon the site.  She then returned to Rome with portions of the True Cross and other relics which were placed in the chapel of her palace.  The palace later became the Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem (which is in Rome) where some of the relics may still be seen.  Helena died in 330AD and was later proclaimed a Saint.  These billon or bronze Nummis (AE3 = 17mm to 21mm) depict Helena on the obverse and various military or mythological themes on the reverse. The coin is certified and graded by NGC.
Item HELENA ROME, EMPRESS HELENA 324-330AD, NUMMUS, NGC XF $85.00



THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY IN ANCIENT ROME - A SET OF 12 BRONZE COINS 

Set of 12 Ancient Roman coins in folder - The Rise of Christianity
In the 300 years between the death of Jesus and the death of Constantine the Great, Christianity went from being the nascent belief system of a dozen disciples to the official religion of the mighty Roman Empire.  This remarkable collection tells the story in coins.  Gallienus issued the Edict of Toleration, making Christianity legal in the Empire for the first time.  Claudius II Gothicus reversed this decision, persecuting Christians in the realm.  Constantine I was the first Christian emperor.  he and Licinius I issued the Edict of Milan in 313, decreeing that all Christians in Rome must be treated benevolently.  Constantine's sons, Constaintine II, Constantinus II and Constans maintained their father's policy.  Only Julian II, called the Aspotate by the Church, attempted to revert to paganism, but by then it was too late.  By the time Valentinian, Valens and Gratian, Rome was officially Christian; indeed, those three emperors converted barbarians to Christianity.  This set of 12 ancient Roman bronze coins includes coins of Gallienus (253-258), Claudius II Gothicus (268-270), Constantine the Great (307-337), Licinius I (308-324), Constantine II (337-340), Constantinus II (337-361), Constans (337-350),  Donstantintius Gallus (351-34), Julian II the Apostate (360-364), Valentian I the Great (364-378), Valens (364-378) and Gratian (367-383).  After the Fourth Century, Rome was often ruled by more than one emperor at the same time.    The obverse of each coin shows the portrait of the emperor at the time the coins were minted.  The reverse shows pictures and phrases depicting current concerns, history and mythology.  The coins grade Very Good or better.  They are guaranteed genuine and are packaged in an attractive descriptive folder.
Item CHRISTSET12 RISE OF CHRISTIANITY IN ANCIENT ROME: 12 ROMAN BRONZE COINS IN ALBUM $120.00


BEAUTIFUL ANCIENT SILVER COIN OF THE HIMYARITE KINGS OF ARABIA

Himyarite Kings of Arabia silver 1/2 Denarius, circa 100-200ADThe Himyarite Kingdom was centered in what is now Yemen.  It grew wealthy exporting frankincense and myrrh and trading ivory, which they exported from Africa and sold to the Roman Empire.  About 380AD the kingdom converted from polytheism to Judaism.  These 15mm convex silver half denarius depict a male's head facing right, with a monogram and a trident behind.  The reverse features a smaller head, an ornamented scepter and inscriptions.  The coins were minted from about 100 to 200AD.  Though struck in high relief, the coins show only minimal wear.  It is a scarce and attractive coin from a little-known ancient kingdom.
Item HIMYARITE HIMYARITE KINGS OF ARABIA SILVER 1/2 DENARIUS ca.100-200AD XF $135.00




NEWEARLY ANCIENT CHINESE COIN  Ancient Chinese Pan Liang coin, 140-118BC

The Pan Liang (Ban Liang) was the first unified currency of China.  It was a cast round uniface copper coin with a square hole with the two characters "Pan Liang", which roughly translates as "half ounce"  The coin was introduced about 210BC with a weight of 12 Shu. About 175BC it was officially reduced to 4 Shu, then later to 3 Shu.  The basic design of a round, cast coin with a square hole became the standard that China continued to use for over 2000 years!  Considering its age, it is a remarkably inexpensive coin.
Item CN-PAN CHINA, PAN LIANG 175-118BC (Scj. 107+) Fine  $12.50


THE REMARKABLE WU-CH'U COIN 

Ancient Chinese Wu Shu coin, 118BC - circa 500ADIn 118BC Emperor Yuan-shou withdrew the Pan-Liang coin and introduced a new coin, called the Wu Ch'u (Wu Zhu) worth 5 Shu.  Unlike the earlier Pan Liang coins it had a raised rim to prevent filing.  The coin proved quite popular, and except for the Wang Mang interregnum, it continued to be issued in various versions for the next six centuries!  Now that is significant monetary stability.
Item CN-WU CHINA WU-CH'U COIN 118BC - circa 500AD (Scj.114+) F-VF $7.00



THE DISASTROUS REIGN OF WANG MANG

CHINA WANG MANG 50 CASH COIN (TA CH'IEN WU SHIH) 7-14AD Scj.120+CHINA WANG MANG HOU CH'UAN COIN 14-23AD Scj.149+Wang Mang arranged to have himself appointed regent for the young Han Emperor in 7AD. Two years later he killed the boy and usurped the throne.  He attempted major reforms of China's economy, many of which were attempted by the communists in the 1950's, These included  the abolition of slavery, introduction of an income tax, redistribution of the land, institution of price controls, and confiscation of gold.  He demonetized existing coins and instituted new ones based on an unbacked fiat coinage. Despite the execution and exile of thousands, the reforms were not accepted. The economy collapsed; there were widespread general strikes and massive starvation. In 23AD Wang was slain, his "reforms" were abolished and the Han dynasty restored. We offer the following two unusual coins issued by Wang Mang: The first is a Ta Ch'ien Wu Shih coin, which he introduced in 7AD.   Though only slightly heavier than the old Wu Ch'u coins, it was worth 50 Wu Ch'u.  As might be expected the merchants did not take too kindly to this new coin.  In 14AD the value of the Ta Chi'en Wu Shih coin was reduced in value from 50 Cash to 1 Cash.  The same year he introduced a new coin, called a Hou Ch'uan.. The coin remained in use until after his death, when the Wu Ch’u was restored as the standard circulating coin of China.
Item CN-TA-CH'IEN CHINA WANG MANG 50 CASH COIN (TA CH'IEN WU SHIH) 7-14AD Scj.120+ VF out
Item CN-HOU-CHUAN CHINA WANG MANG HOU CH'UAN COIN 14-23AD Scj.149+ Fine $7.50



NEWONLY COIN OF THE SHORT-LIVED SUI DYNASTY OF CHINA

China, Sui Dynasty Wu Chu coin, 581-618ADThe Sui Dynasty lasted only 37 years, from 581 to 618AD, yet led a major transition in China’s history.  The dynasty united China for the first time after four centuries of division and strife.  Buddhism was encouraged and Confucian rituals reintroduced. Major construction projects were undertaken, including upgrades to the Great Wall and construction of the Grand Canal which is still in use today.  The canal connected northern and southern China together with the inland capitals of the dynasty.  Major reforms were implemented, redistribution of farm lands, including making the penal code and administrative rules fairer, more lenient and simpler, taxation reform, and a major coinage reform.  A new, well made, broad-rimmed Wu Chu coin with distinct characters was introduced. The Dynasty conquered northern Vietnam and made a disastrous attempt to conquer Korea.  Large numbers of conscripts were needed for the construction projects and to fight wars, leading to a shortage of agricultural workers.   The heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties needed for the ambitious wars and construction projects led to widespread revolts and the dynasty was overthrown in 618AD.
Item CN-SUI CHINA, SUI DYNASTY WU CH'U 581-618AD VF $12.00


FAMOUS K'AI YUAN COIN OF THE TANG DYNASTY 

China 1 Cash K'ai Yuan coin of Tang Dynasty The K'ai Yuan coin was introduced by Chinese Emperor Kao Tsu, who founded the Tang Dyansty in 618AD.  The coins replaced the previously used Wu-Chu and other coins.  The high quality of the coins and excellent calligraphy set a standard for Chinese coins for the next 1000 years!   The legend on the coin, K'ai Yuan Tung Pao translates as "precious currency of the K'ai Yuan era".   The Tang Dynasty was a brilliant period in Chinese history.  It was an era of great prosperity and artistry.   The K'ai Yuan coin continued to be issued for the next 300 years, until the collapse of the Dynasty in 907AD.   During much of the dynasty the coin was the only denomination struck.  Because of the relatively low value of the coin and the high level of commerce a LOT of the coins were issued during that period. (Think of doing all your transactions with only pennies!)   As a result the coin, though over 1000 years old, is still plentiful and inexpensive.
Item CN-KAI CHINA K'AI YUAN 1 CASH COIN 618-907AD Scj. 312+ Fine-VF $4.50
Item CN-KAIx10 10 PIECES OF CHINA K'AI YUAN 1 CASH COIN 618-907AD Fine-VF $25.00
Item CN-KAIx25 25 PIECES OF CHINA K'AI YUAN 1 CASH COIN 618-907AD Fine-VF $49.50



ATTRACTIVE LARGE COIN OF CHINA’S NORTHERN SONG DYNASTY

China, Chong Ning 5 Cash coin, 1102-1106AD Scj. 622-623The Northern (Pei) Song (Sung) Dynasty came to power in 960AD.  China prospered under its wise Emperors. In 1101 Emperor Hui Zong (Hui Tsung) came to power.  A cultured man, poet, painter and avid patron of the arts, he spent vast sums collecting art, supporting artists, and building a costly imperial garden.   He neglected the affairs of state.  The civil service became increasingly corrupt, the army weak, and the treasury bankrupt. The Emperor allied himself with the increasingly powerful Jin (Chin Tarters) of Manchuria to attack and destroy the neighboring Liao Kingdom.  The Jin (Chin), then turned against him and succeeded in sacking and destroying the weakened Song Dynasty.  Hui Zong was captured, along with most of the Imperial Court, and died in exile in Manchuria.
    In 1102 Hui Zong began to issue this attractive, large (32 to 35mm) copper 5 Cash coin (some references call it a 10 Cash) using the reign title Chong Ning (Ch'ung Ning). The coins had far less copper than five one cash coins, so brought in substantial extra revenue for the government.  As might be expected, this devalued money drove the good money out of circulation which caused a severe coin shortage.  The public outcry caused the Emperor to discontinue the coins by 1106AD.  It is an attractive coin from a cultured, but inept, Emperor of China.
Item CN-S622 CHINA 5 CASH CHONG NING 1102-1106AD ORTHODOX SCRIPT Scj. 622-623 VF $15.00



ELEPHANT ON ANCIENT SATAVAHANA COIN

Satavanahana, Early Satakarni dynasty, potin Karshapana depicting elephant, circa 30-107AD, MAC 4941+An elephant is depicted on obverse of this ancient Karshapana of the Satavahana (Andhra) Empire. At its peak the empire controlled most of central and southern India.  The reverse depicts the Ujjain symbol, also known as the Satavahana symbol. The symbol comprises of four circles attached to the ends of the bars of a cross.  The coin was issued by the early Satakarni dynasty between about 30 AD and 107AD.  The Satavahana Empire ruled most of central and southern India and engaged in trade with the Roman Empire. The coin is struck in a copper and lead alloy called potin.
Item IN-SATAV SATAVAHANA KARSHAPANA, ELEPHANT, circa 30-107AD MAC4941+ Fine $19.50


ANCIENT KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER COIN 

Kushano-Sassanian copper coins, Kobad, circa 330-350ADAfter the split of the Kushan Empire around 230AD, the eastern portion became a vassal state of the Sasanian Empire is known as the Kushano-Sassanians.  It controlled parts of what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan. It remained until about 350AD, when the area was conquered by the White Huns (Hephthalites).  These small, crude copper coins, sometimes called a Drachm or a unit, were minted between about 241 and 350AD. They are some of the last coins of the Kushano-Sasanians. They are modeled after the Sasanian silver Drachm, however are smaller, much cruder and made of copper.  One side features the bust of the king, the other features a Zoroastrian fire altar. 
Item KUSHAN-SAS KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER DRACHM, ca.241-350AD G-CRUDE $5.00



COINS OF KING ARTHUR?

British barbarous ancient Roman RadiatesThese small, ancient copper coins, called Barbarous Radiates, are found in hoards in England.  They are crude privately made, ancient copies of third century Roman coins.  They are not generally regarded as forgeries as they are smaller than the standard issues.  The designs are based on the Roman Antoninianus which features the emperor wearing a radiate crown.  Some sources attribute them to the Dark Ages or the Saxon period, a time when the legendary King Arthur is said to have ruled.  Other sources attribute them to the late third century, when Britain and Gaul were under the control of their own self-declared emperors. Either way they are fascinating ancient coins from ancient Britain.
Item GB-BARBx1 1 ANCIENT BRITISH BARBAROUS RADIATE, CRUDE $7.50
Item GB-BARBx5 5 of the above ANCIENT BARBAROUS RADIATES, CRUDE $32.50




SILVER DRACHM OF THE PALAS OF BENGAL

Palas of Bengal silver Drachms, circa 850-950ADThe Pala Dynasty arose in Bengal India in the mid-eighth century after a period of anarchy.  They were astute diplomats, military conquerors and scholars.  They established and promoted universities, built grand temples and monasteries, their missionaries established Buddhism in Tibet, their army was noted for its corps of war elephants and it had an extensive navy.  Most numismatists attribute these crude silver Drachms to the Palas during a period of dynastic decline between about 850 and 950AD.  The designs of the coins are based on the  Sasanian Drachm, which had not been stuck for hundreds of years. Each generation created new coins by copying the designs of the crudely made coins already found in circulation.  One side had the head of the king.  The other side had a fire altar. By the time the Palas came to power the coiners had no concept of what the original coins looked like, resulting in a design that bears little resemblance to the original.  Every coin is different, and every coin is crude.
Item IN-PALA PALAS OF BENGAL, SILVER DRACHM, circa 850-950AD VG-CRUDE $8.00
Item IN-PALAx3 3 DIFFERENT PALAS SILVER DRACHMS, circa 850-950AD VG-CRUDE $19.50




MEDIEVAL SILVER COINS OF THE HABBARID AMIRS OF SINDH 

Sindh silver Damma of Abdullah ca.884-913ADSind silver Dhamma of Ali, circa 973-987ADSindh (Sind) is located in what is now the south-eastern portion of Pakistan.  The Habbaris were Arab traders and merchants that settled in Sindh in pre-Islamic times.  Despite living in India for hundreds of years and marrying locals, they maintained their Arab identity, language and customs.  By the mid 9th century AD they were able to assert control over Sindh, paying only nominal allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph. The coinage of the Habbarids of Sind (also known as the Amirs of Sindh) consisted of  small (10 to 11mm) silver Dammas (Dhammas) that feature Arabic inscriptions on both sides.  In 1026 Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud conquered Sindh.  We are pleased to offer silver Dammas of two of the Habbarid sultans of Sindh.  Abdallah I, who ruled from about 884 to 913AD, and Ali, who ruled from about 973 to 987AD
Item SINDH-ABD SINDH SILVER DAMMA, ABDALLAH ca.884-913AD VF $8.00
Item SINDH-ALI SINDH SILVER DAMMA, ALI ca. 973-987AD VF $7.00



RICHARD THE LIONHEART

Richard the Lionheart, 1169-1199AD silver DenierRichard the Lionheart was the King of England, Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony and Lord of Cyprus. Though he was born in England he disliked the country and spent less than six months there throughout his entire reign.  He regarded it as little more than a source of tax revenue. Most of his reign was spent in France, on Crusade or as a prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI who held him for ransom while he was attempting to return home from the Third Crusade.  Richard's knightly prowess made him a popular king and the subject of legends. During the Third Crusade he occupied Sicily and captured Cyprus with the aid of Levon of Armenia before arriving in the Holy Land in 1191. He sold Cyprus to the Knights Templar   In 1199 Richard died after being wounded while laying siege to a castle in an effort to get a hoard of gold that had been found by a peasant.  Richard’s coins from England are very scarce and pricy.  This Anglo-Gallic silver Denier of Richard the Lionheart is much more reasonable.  The coin has a simple design. One side has his name on it “RICA / DIUS” while the other has a cross and the name of the mint (Aquitaine or Poitou).  As is typical of coins of that era, it is crudely engraved and weakly struck.
Item LIONHEART RICHARD THE LIONHEART 1169-1199 SILVER DENIER VG-Crude $125.00




CRUSADER COIN OF BOHEMOND THE CHILD

Crusaders of Antioch , Bohemond III silver Denier, 1163-1201Bohemond III of the Crusader Principality of Antioch, also known as Bohemond the Child and Bohemond the Stammerer, ascended to the throne in 1163.  He then exiled his mother who had served as his regent since he was age one. .In 1180 he deserted his wife in favor of Sibyl, who may have been a spy for Saladin  This led to an escalating stuggle with the Church. Bohemond was excommunicated. In retaliation he confiscated the church's property, which led to an Antioch placed under interdict, which then led to armed conflicts.  The conflict was partially solved through mediation and the leaders of the opposition fled to Cilician Armenia.  In 1185 he invited the king Roupen III of Cilician Armenia to a banquet but imprisoned him instead.  He then invaded Cilician Armenia.  A peace treaty was signed which released the Roupen in return for a large ransom, Roupon acknowledging Bohemond's suzerainty and giving Bohemond territory.  Upon his release Roupon promptly recaptured the territory. In 1194 Cilician Armenian King Levon I (Leo)  invited Bohemond to negotiate over a castle Leo had captured, but instead took Bohemond prisoner. Bohemond was released after giving up claims on Armenia.  Bohemond was involved in the disputes over the dynastic succession of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, which led to Saladin's capture of Jerusalem in 1187. In 1188 Saladin captured much of northern Syria, and forced surrender of fortresses of the Knights Templar.  Bohemond pleaded for a truce, which Saladin granted, but left him only with his capital and its port.  The Third Crusade was called in 1189 in an attempt to recapture Jerusalem.  During the Crusade Bohemond twice met with Richard the Lionheart, but did not provide any military assistance to the Crusaders.  Upon Bohemond's death in 1201, a series of wars broke out among his successors over control of his territory. This was not resolved until 1219.  The obverse of this silver Denier of Antioch a crude portrait of Bohemond III wearing a helmet and chain mail.  A crescent moon is to the left and a star to the right. The reverse features a cross and a crescent.   It is an historic coin from what was an important Crusader kingdom.
Item ANTIOCH CRUSADER PRINCIPALITY OF ANTIOCH, BOHEMOND III DENIER 1163-1201 VG-FINE $95.00



FIRST SILVER COIN OF MEDIEVAL ARMENIA

Armenia, silver Tram of Levon I, 1198-1219About 1198 Levon I (also called Leo II, Leon II and Levon the Magnificant) was crowned as the first king of Cilcian Armenia.  He had ruled the territory as Lord of Armenia since 1187, after his brother was captured by Bohemond III of Antioch and retired to a monastery. As king he had the privilege of issuing the first Armenian coins since ancient times.  He established a powerful Christian kingdom and was a strong supporter of the Third Crusade. He had numerous intrigues and conflicts with Bohemond III of Antioch, at one point taking him and his family prisoner after inviting them to castle. He was later involved in the War of the Antiochene Succession after Bohemond's death.  He joined Richard the Lion Heart in the conquest of Cyprus and was actively involved in the numerous political plots and intrigues of the Crusader kingdoms and neighboring kingdoms.  These crude silver Trams are approximately 22mm in diameter.  One side pictures King Levon seated upon his throne.  The reverse shows a lion and leopard with a cross.  It is an historic Armenian coin with a close connection to the Crusades. 
Item AM-LEVON ARMENIA SILVER TRAM OF LEVON I 1198-1219 F-VF-crude $65.00


NEWHISTORIC MEDIEVAL ARMENIAN COIN SET

Cilician Armenia 6 coin set in case
This remarkable set features six historic medieval coins of Cilician Armenia housed in an attractive box with a descriptive folder.  Cilician Armenia (also called Little Armenia) was formed by refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of the Armenian Highland.  Levon (Leo) I "The Magnificent" was a skilled diplomat who unified the Armenians in Cilicia (now southern Turkey) to create a powerful Christian state.  He was crowned the first king of medieval Armenia in 1198. As king he had the privilege of issuing the first Armenian coins since ancient times.  He was actively involved in the Third Crusade.  Upon his death in 1219 his daughter Zabel (Isabella) became Queen under the authority of regents.   A bloody feud over the control of the regency broke out.  Zabel attempted to retire to a monastic life, but was forced to marry Hetoum (Hethum Het'um), the son of her regent and founder of the Hetoumid dynasty.  The couple ruled jointly until Zabels death in 1252 and Hetoum ruled alone until 1270.  During their reign the Mongols under Ghengis Khan and his successor expanded rapidly into central Asia.  Facing a possible invasion, Hetoum negotiated an alliance with the Mongols, which guaranteed the integrity of Cilician Armenia, but effectively made it a vassal of the Mongols.   After the death of Zabel, Cilician Armenia came under repeated attacks from the Mamluks, who had taken control of Egypt and Palestine.  Thousands of Armenians were massacred and taken captive.  In 1268 an earthquake further devastated the country. After these disasters Hetoum abdicated in favor of his son, Levon II in 1270.   Levon II paid huge tributes to the Mamluks and cede many fortresses and territory, however the Mamluks continued to raid the country.  Levon II met Marco Polo when the later visited Armenia in 1271.  Levon died of arsenic poisoning in 1289 and was succeeded by his son Hetoum II.  Hetoum II abdicated twice in order to take vows in the Franciscan order, but remained involved in Armenian politics, thus kept returning to the throne. He and his successor were assassinated in 1307 by a Mongol general who recently converted to Islam.  Levon IV was the last Hetoumid king of Armenia. who reigned from 1320 to 1342.  His reign from 1320 to 1342 was marked by attacks from the Mamluks and bloody court intrigues.  He was murdered by his own barons in 1341.  Armenia continued to decline until it was completely overrun by the Mamlukes in 1275. 
It is a good value and an impressive set for numismatists, lovers of history or those of Armenian ancestry.  It would be hard to duplicate at anywhere near this price.
The six coin set includes:
1.    Levon I (1198-1219): Silver coronation tram. The obverse depicts the crowned king seated on a throne ornamented with lions.  The reverse depicts two lions back-to-back with a patriarchal cross(cross with two bars) between them.
2.    Zabel and Hetoum I (1226-52): Silver marriage tram. The obverse depicts Zabel on the left, Hetoum on the right, in royal vestments.  The reverse depicts a walking lion and a long cross.
3.    Hetoum I (1226-70): Copper tank depicting the king seated cross-legged on a throne adorned with lions. A potent cross is on the reverse.
4.    Levon II (1270-89) copper Kardez.  A walking lion is on the obverse and a cross on the reverse
5.    Hetoum II (1289-1305) Copper Kardez.  The obverse has the facing bust of the crowned king. A patriarchal cross is on the reverse.
6.    Levon IV (1320-42) silver takvorin depicting the king on horseback holding reins and mace.  A lion walking in front of a tall cross is on the reverse.
Item AM-MEDIEVAL SET OF 6 MEDIEVAL ARMENIAN COINS IN CASE, VG-VF $275.00




UNUSUAL SILVER CRUSADER COIN WITH STAR OF DAVID

Crusader copy of Ayyubid silver DirhemThis silver Crusader Dirham has something for everyone!  It is a Crusader copy of an Islamic coin that features a Star-of-David.  Though the Christian Crusader States in the Holy Land were engaged in a Holy War against the Muslims, they were pragmatic when it came to money.  The Christian Crusader states simply copied the widely accepted Ayyubid silver Dirham which featured a Star of David on both sides.   The Crusader version however tended to be crude, with blundered legends and fictitious dates. It was minted between about 1171 and 1260AD.  It is an historical silver coin reflecting the major religions during a turbulent period in the still turbulent Middle East.
Item CRUS-1 CRUSADER SILVER DIRHEM, circa 1171-1260AD F-CRUDE $35.00



NEWPOLITICAL INTRIGUE IN THE MIDDLE AGES - BAVARIAN PFENNIG OF OTTO II

Bavaria silver Pfennig of Duke Otto II and Bishop Siegfried of Regensburg, 1231-40This silver pfennig was a joint issue of Duke Otto II of Bavaria, also known as Otto the Illustrious, who ruled from 1231 to 1253 and Bishop Siegfried of Regensburg.  It was a period of intense political intrigue.  The Duke, the Bishop and the Burghers were all vying for control of Regensburg while Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick II and Pope were vying for supremacy over Europe.  In 1227 newly elected Pope Gregory IX appointed Siegfried as Bishop of Regensburg. The appointment was supported by Frederick, but opposed by the Duke Ludwig of Bavaria who supported another candidate.  The following year Frederick and Pope Gregory had a falling out over control over Frederick's imperial power in Italy and Frederick's failure to honor his pledge to go on a crusade to the Holy Land. The Pope supported Frederick's son, Henry in his effort to gain control of his father's territories in Italy and Germany. Siegfried persuaded Frederick to grant a charter of rights to the burghers of Regensburg, in an effort to limit the power of the Duke Ludwig who was a supporter of Henry.  In 1231 Ludwig as murdered under unclear circumstances and his son Otto became Duke of Bavaria.  The pope and Fredrick briefly made peace before he again excommunicated Fredrick.  Pope Gregory went so far as to declare Frederick to be the Anti-Christ. The pope sought support by requesting Duke Otto to summon a council in which the bishops would be ordered to support a Papal ban against Frederick.  Many bishops, including Sigismund defied the summons and openly prayed for Gregory.  In response Albrecht, the Papal Legate excommunicated Bishop Siegfried.   Those attempting to post or proclaim the papal bans were attacked and many papal supporters fled Regensburg.  The Papal Legate then placed the entire city under interdict.  Duke Otto ended his disputes Fredrick and joined Siegfried in supporting the emperor.  Pope Gregory died in 1241 but the conflict between the Papacy and Frederick continued under his successor, Innocent IV.  In 1245 the pope stripped him of his Fredrick of his titles and crowns and began an active campaign to undermine him by and replacing his supporters in the clergy.  Mendicant friars were sent into the marketplaces to preach against the emperor.  In 1246 Bishop Siegfried switched his support from Fredrick to the Pope.  The burghers then forced the bishop into exile. Fredrick issued a document revoking the bishop's authority over public affairs of the city, handing it over to the burghers.  Siegfried responded by placing the city again under interdict, forbidding clergy from holding services and stirring up dissension.   Clergy loyal to the emperor in Regensburg continued religious services while clergy loyal to the pope were harassed and humiliated.  Duke Otto gave his daughter in marriage to Fredrick's son King Conrad.  In response the Pope excommunicated Otto.  In 1250 the new bishop of Regensburg persuaded Bohemian king Ottocar III to intervene.  His troops devastated the region and city almost fell, until rescued by the troops of Duke Otto and King Conrad.  Fredrick died in December 1250, bringing to an end to his conflict with the Pope.  This silver Pfennig was issued Duke Otto II and Bishop Siegfried between 1231 and 1240 in Regensburg. The 20mm coin has a lion on one side and an eagle on the other, but is so poorly struck it is hard to make out much of the design. It is an inexpensive historic coin from a period of turmoil between the church and state in high medieval Europe.
Item BAV-OTTO BAVARIA SILVER PFENNIG, DUKE OTTO II & BISHOP SIEGFRIED, REGENSBURG 1231-1240 CRUDE $12.50
Item BAV-OTTOx5 5 of the above BAVARIA SILVER PFENNIG, 1231-1240 CRUDE $48.00
Item BAV-OTTOx25 25 of the above BAVARIA SILVER PFENNIG, 1231-1240 CRUDE $175.00



KING EDWARD III STARTS THE 100 YEARS WAR

Anglo-Gallic silver Denier of Edward III, 1327-77Edward III became King of England at age 14 in 1327 when his mother, Isabella of France and her lover, deposed his father, Edward II.  His 50-year reign was a transformational period of English history. In 1337, French King Philip VI confiscated Edward's possessions in France, which included the Duchy of Aquitaine.   In return Edward claimed the entire Kingdom of France, thus starting the Hundred Years War between France and England (which actually lasted 116 years).  In  In 1348 the Black Death (bubonic plague) hit England, killing more than a third of the population. The plague returned again in 1361, killing around 20 percent of the population.  King Edward was forced to turn to Parliament to raise taxes in order to pay for the war in France.   This, along with the shortage of labor caused by the plagues, strengthened and evolved the power of the English Parliament and helped to define the House of Commons.   King Edward III died of a stroke in 1377.  We are pleased to offer silver Denier of Edward II issued for their territories in France.  The coin Denier of King Edward III depicts a leopard within the legends on the obverse and a cross on the reverse.  The 18mm coins is not heavily worn, but is rather crudely struck.
Item EDW-III EDWARD III SILVER DENIER 1327-77, VG-CRUDE $75.00



CHRIST FEATURED ON SILVER GROSH OF THE LAST MEDIEVAL KING OF BULGARIA

Bulgaria silver Grosch, Ivan Stratsimir 1356-1396Ivan Sratsimir was the last king of the medieval Bulgarian Kingdom.  He reigned from the city of Vidin from 1356, until he was captured and killed by the Ottoman Turks in 1396.   One side of this 16mm silver Grosch depicts the bust of Christ, blessing with his right hand and holding the Gospel in his left.  To his right and left is the Christogram "IC – XC".  The other side depicts the king seated on his throne holding a scepter in his right hand.  The coin shows little if any wear, but is rather crudely struck. 
Item BG-SRATSIMIR BULGARIA SILVER GROSH OF IVAN SRATSIMIR 1356-96 VF-crude $85.00



BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT

Bishopric of Borpat silver Lubische (Pfennig) 1379-1441The Bishopric of Dorpat (now Tartu) was a prince-bishopric that once controlled much of what is now south-eastern Estonia. It was an important Hanseatic trade center.  This small (about 12mm) silver 1 Lubische (late called 1 Pfennig) was issued by the Bishops of Dorpat between 1379 and 1441.  During this period the Bishopric was in conflict with the Knights of the Livonian Order who controlled adjacent territories. Both sides of the coin depict the arms of the Bishopric which consists of a crossed key and sword.  The Dorpat Cathedral, the seat of the Bishop, was once one of the largest religious structures in Eastern Europe.  It was heavily damaged in the 1520's during the Protestant Reformation and was abandoned after the last Bishop was deported to Russia in 1558.  Ruins of the once grand cathedral are now part of the grounds of the University of Tartu. The coin is a reminder of a once powerful but now extinct Bishopric.
Item DORPAT BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT SILVER LUBISCHE 1379-1441 VG-F-CRUDE $12.00
Item DORPATx5 5 PIECES OF THE ABOVE BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT SILVER LUBISCHE 1379-1441 VG-F-CRUDE $45.00
Item DORPATx25 25 PIECES OF THE ABOVE BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT SILVER LUBISCHE 1379-1441 VG-F-CRUDE $175.00



FRIEDRICH THE IRONTOOTH OF BRANDENBURG

Brandenburg, Fredrick II, the Iron, silver bracteate hohlpfennig 1440-1470 Saurma 4675This silver Bracteate Hohlpfennig was issued by Friedrich II (Frederick II) who was the Prince-Elector of the Margravate of Brandenburg from 1440 to 1470. It is believed that he was nicknamed "The Irontooth" or "The Iron" due to his great strength and power.  Friedrich strengthened Brandenburg forming the basis of what was to become Prussia and the German Empire.  The rights of the towns and nobility were curtailed and he regained Neumark (East Brandenburg) from the Teutonic Knights.  The citizens of Berlin revolted when he attempted to build a palace on Colin island in the Spree river.  Friedrich prevailed, built the castle that became the Stadtschloss (Berlin Palace), and the rights of the city were greatly curtailed. The Stadtschloss was torn down by East Germany in the 1950's and is now being rebuilt.  The silver Bracteate Hohlpfennig is an extremely thin and single sided coin wtih a raised rim.  The design is embossed from the reverse.  This coin is approximately 16mm in diameter and features an eagle with outstretched wings.  Because the coins are so thin and fragile, few survive today.
Item BRAND BRANDENBURG SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-1470, Saurma 4675 F-VF $39.00


MEDIEVAL CITY COINS OF THE MARGARVIATE OF BRANDENBURG

Brandenburg, City of Stendal, silver Hohlpfennig, Friedrich II 1440-1480, Bahrfeldt 19  Brandenburg, City of Stendal, silver Hohlpfennig, Friedrich II 1440-1480, Bahrfeldt 19
These medieval city Hohlpfennigs were issued during the reign of Friedrich II Irontooth, who was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1440 to 1470.  A Hohlpfennig is a thin silver coin, about 16mm in diameter with a raised rim. The coin design is embossed on one side and incuse on the other. They were widely used in Northern Germany in the late Middle Ages.  The coins depict the arms of the city in which they were struck. The coin from Stendal depicts half an eagle on the left and four diamonds on the right.  Stendal is located about 78 miles (125km) west of Berlin. It the joined Hanseatic League in 1358 and purchased the privilege of minting from the Brandenburg margraves in 1369.  In 1456 Friedrich II founded a convent for Augustinian nuns in the city, which today is a museum.  The Hohlpfennig from Frankfurt an der Oder features a plumed knight's helmet. Frankfurt (Oder) is located about 50 miles (80km.) east of Berlin on the Oder river on what is now the German-Polish border.  It was founded as a Polish town.  In 1249 it became part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg,  The knight's helmet design makes this one of the more interesting Hohlpfennigs.
Item STENDAL STENDAL SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-70, Bahrfeldt 19 VF-crude $29.50
Item FRANK-O FRANKFURT (ODER) SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-70, Bahrfeldt 16 VF-crude $33.50




SILVER COINS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

The Ottoman Empire was a vast, rich, powerful empire that at its peak spanned three continents, including much of southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in what is now Turkey, and lasted until 1922. Its early coinage consisted primarily of small, poorly struck silver coins.  We are pleased to offer some of the coins of some of the Ottoman's most important early Sultans. Because the coins were produced in large quantities and have not been widely collected, they are still quite reasonably priced. 
Ottoman, Murad II silver Akce, Serez Mint, AH825 = 1421ADMurad II became Sultan in 1421 at the age of 16 upon the death of his father. He portrayed himself as a simple soldier and did not partake in the royal excesses, which is well as he spent most of his reign at war.  The Byzantines supported pretenders to undermine his regime.  Though he laid siege to Constantinople, he was unable to conquer the city. He later declared war against Venice, Serbia and Hungary.  In the 1430's he gained vast territories in the Balkans.  After defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies in the Battle of Varma in eastern Bulgaria in 1444 he abdicated the throne in favor of his 12-year old son Mehmet II (Mehmed II).  A palace revolt forced Murad II to return to the throne in 1446.  In 1448 Murad defeated the Christian coalition in the Second Battle of Kosovo.  He then turned east to defeat Timur's son, Shah Rokh and the Karamanids.  In 1450 he led his army into Albania but fell ill and died. This silver Akce of Murad is dated AH825 (1421 AD). It was minted at Serez, which is now Serres in Macedonia. The coin is about 11 to 14mm in diameter.  
Ottoman, Suleyman I the Magnificent, Silver Medini AH925 = 1520ADSuleiman the Magnificent (Suleyman I) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566.  During his long reign he greatly expanded his empire, conquering much of the Middle East, North Africa, most of Hungary and laid siege to Vienna twice.  He instituted major reforms in education, taxation and criminal law.  He was an accomplished poet, goldsmith and patron of the arts.    This silver Medini (3 Akces) of Suleiman was struck at the Amid mint, in what is now Diyabakir in Turkey. Diyabakir, located on the Tigris River is considered the "un-proclaimed capital of so-called Turkish Kurdistan".  The silver coin is approximately 13mm in diameter and is dated AH926 (1520AD).  It is an historic coin of an historic monarch.
Item TR-MUR2 OTTOMAN, MURAD II SILVER AKCE, AH825=1421AD, SEREZ MINT, F-crude $15.00
Item TR-SUL OTTOMAN, SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT SILVER MEDINI AH926=1520AD, AMID MINT VG-crude $6.00



NEW1621 SILVER DENAR OF TRANSYLVANIA

Transylvania silver 1 Denar of Gabriel Bethlen 1621 KM120This silver Dener of Transylvania was struck for Gabriel Bethlen. Bethlen became the Prince Transylvania in 1613 with support from the Ottoman Empire.  His reign marked the start of a golden age for Transylvania.  He developed mines and industry, founded a college and supported the arts. He nationalized much of the foreign trade, profits of which helped support his many programs.  He was Calvinist, and waged three wars against the Catholic Hapsburgs.  In 1620 he was elected King of Hungary.  After a string of military defeats by Hapsburg forces, he renounced the title in 1621 in return for guarantees of religious freedom for Hungarian Protestants.  This silver Denar of Gabriel Bethlen is dated 1621.  The obverse depicts the Madonna and Child.   The reverse has the arms of Hungary.  The slightly irregular coin is approximately 13mm and was struck at the Kremnica Mint (KB).  The small coin shows virtually no wear. 
Item TRANSY-1621 TRANSYLVANIA 1 DENAR 1621 KM120 XF-AU $75.00

ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COIN SPECIAL  

A selection of three different identified ancient and medieval coins, including one silver coin.   The coins are primarily from India and central Asia.  This was one of my best sellers for almost 40 years, however  I had to discontinue it due to the lack of affordable ancients. Due to a very fortunate recent purchase, we can again offer this special deal.   Each coin is identified in its own envelope.  Coins grade Good to Very Fine.  Multiple lots will most likely contain the same coins.
Item 3A&M 3 IDENTIFIED ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS INCLUDING SILVER $9.75


ALSO SEE:

Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF AFGHANISTAN

Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF INDIA and  PAKISTAN

MEDIEVAL COINS OF THE MIDDLE EAST

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL CHINESE COINS



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All items are guaranteed to be genuine, unless clearly indicated otherwise.
NOTE:  All pictures are of a typical item taken from stock.  Because we have multiples of most items, the item you receive may not look exactly the same, however it will be as described.


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Joel Anderson
PO Box 365
Grover Beach, CA 93483-0365
USA
Phone: 1 805 489 8045 | Fax: 1 805 299 1818
Email: orders@joelscoins.com

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