Joel Anderson, Interesting World Coins

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ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COINS

ANCIENT PERSIAN SILVER SIGLOS

Persia silver siglos 546-330BCThe ancient Persian Empire stretched through the Fertile Crescent, covering much of modern-day Iran, Iraq and Turkey.  The Persian silver Siglos was first introduced about 546BC, during the reign of Cyrus the Great.  The silver Siglos continued to be issued during the reigns of Darius and Xerxes.  It was practically the only coin of issued by the Persian Empire until the it was conquered by Alexander the Great in 330BC. The coins show the king kneeling holding a bow and carrying a spear or a dagger.   The reverse side has a crude incuse punch mark that was formed when the coin was struck.  It is an important historic coin that was used in much of the ancient world. 
Item SIGLOS PERSIA SILVER SIGLOS 546-330BC VG-F-crude $149.00



SILVER TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT & SELEUCUS I

Macedonia, Alexander the Great 336-323BC, Silver TetradrachmAs a youth, Alexander was taught by Aristotle.  Upon the assassination of his father in 336BC, Alexander became the King of Macedonia at age 20. His army quickly conquered the Greek states and he then set off across Asia. With brilliant military and political tactics he conquered Egypt and the Persian Empire. He continued conquering all in his path.  In 326BC he reached India.  There, his weary army mutinied, refusing to go any further.  Alexander was forced to return.  He died three years later, after a prolonged banquet and drinking binge. Until his reign, Greek coins did not show mortals. But Alexander sought to proclaim himself as a God.  The coins of Alexander portray him as Hercules, dressed in a lion's skin.  The reverse shows Zeus seated. After the death of Alexander in 323BC his top generals fought for control of portions of his empire.  Seleucus I Nicator gained control of a vast territory stretching from Anatolia (now Turkey) to Persia to northwestern India, thus founding the Seleucid Empire.. After battles with Chandragupta of the Mauryan Empire in India they agreed to a peace treaty.  Seleucus gave up some territory.  In exchange Chandragupta gave him 500 war elephants, his daughter in marriage, aphrodisiacs and other gifts He was assassinated in 281BC during his campaign to take Macedonia and Thrace.  Seleucus struck Tetradrachms in the same style as Alexander's, however with the legend ΣEΛEYKOY (Seleucus) rather than AΛEXANΔΡOY (Alexander) on the reverse.
Item ALEX-TET ALEXANDER THE GREAT, 336-323BC, SILVER TETRADRACHM Fine $285.00
Item SEL-TET SELEUCUS I NIKATOR 305-281BC SILVER TETRADRACHM Fine $295.00


INDO-GREEK SILVER DRACHM OF APOLLODOTUS II

Indo-Greek silver Drachm of Apollodotus II, 80-65BCThe Indo-Greeks descended from Alexander the Great, who conquered northern India in 326BC. They were the eastern most part of Hellenistic culture, ruling the area around Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India. They maintained Greek culture, religion and language, incorporating it with elements of Indian culture and language. Apollodotus II was one of the greatest Indo-Greek kings.  During his reign, from about 80 to 65BC he re-established much of the glory and territory of the Indo-Greek kingdoms.  After his death the Indo-Greek kingdom fragmented and soon disappeared.  This silver drachm of Apollodotus II reflects both the Greek and Indian culture.  The obverse depicts the bust of the king with a Greek legend that translates as "Of Apollodotus the Great, Savior & Father loving King".  The reverse depicts Athena Alkidemos standing and has the legend in Kharoshthi script that translates "Savior King Appolodotus".  He obviously thought well of himself.  The coin is approximately 17mm in diameter. It is an attractive and historic ancient silver coin from the farthest reaches of Greek culture.
Item IN-APOLLO INDO-GREEK SILVER DRACHM, APOLLODOTUS II ca.80-65BC VG-F $45.00



A SHORT-LIVED DYNASTY OF THREE SHORT REIGNING ROMAN EMPERORS

Roman BI Aurelianus of Carus, Carinus and Numerian, 282-284ADCarus was appointed prefect of the Pretorian Guard by Emperor Probus in 282.  Shortly after that Probus was murdered and Carus was proclaimed Emperor by his troops in August or September of that year.  He was 60 at the time.  It is unclear if Carus was involved in the murder Probus. He immediately raised his sons Carinus and Numerian to the rank Caesar. His older son, Carinus, was left in charge of the western portion of the Empire, while Numerian accompanied his father on military campaigns.  Carus successfully fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians along the Danube.  He then successfully attacked the Sassanid Empire, but he died in August 283, apparently having been struck by lightening.  Carinus and Numerian succeeded their father as co-emperors.  Carinus in Rome abandoned himself to all kinds of profligacy and excess. Reportedly, he managed to wed and divorce nine separate women during his short rule.  He is reported to have initiated persecution against those he considered to have previously treated him with insufficient respect.  The troops in the Sasanid campaign, now under Numerian, were spooked by the unnatural death of Carus, quickly retreated back to Roman territory.   Sometime between March and November 284 Numerian died or was murdered.  His death was hidden from the troops by his generals until November 284, when they choose Diocletian to be the next emperor.  Carinus left Rome at once and set out to battle Diocletian.  He died at the Battle of the Margus in July 285 what is now Serbia. Some reports state that Carinus was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced.  Others say that his army deserted him.  Either way, it brought and end to the short-lived dynasty.  All three coins are billon Aurelianianus (Antoninianus)  The coins are certified and graded by NGC and come in NGC slab holders. 

Item CARUS ROME, CARUS 282-283AD BI AURELIANIUS NGC VF $99.00
Item CARINUS ROME, CARINUS 283-285AD BI AURELIANIUS NGC VF OUT
Item NUMERIAN ROME, NUMERIAN 283-284AD BI AURELIANIUS NGC VF OUT






COINS OF KING ARTHUR? Restocked

British barbarous ancient Roman RadiatesThese small, ancient copper coins, called Barbarous Radiates, are found in hoards in England.  They are crude privately made, ancient copies of third century Roman coins.  They are not generally regarded as forgeries as they are smaller than the standard issues.  The designs are based on the Roman Antoninianus which features the emperor wearing a radiate crown.  Some sources attribute them to the Dark Ages or the Saxon period, a time when the legendary King Arthur is said to have ruled.  Other sources attribute them to the late third century, when Britain and Gaul were under the control of their own self-declared emperors. Either way they are fascinating ancient coins from ancient Britain.
Item GB-BARBx1 1 ANCIENT BRITISH BARBAROUS RADIATE, CRUDE $8.00
Item GB-BARBx5 5 of the above ANCIENT BARBAROUS RADIATES, CRUDE $35.00



BEAUTIFUL ANCIENT SILVER COIN OF THE HIMYARITE KINGS OF ARABIA

Himyarite Kings of Arabia silver 1/2 Denarius, circa 100-200ADThe Himyarite Kingdom was centered in what is now Yemen.  It grew wealthy exporting frankincense and myrrh and trading ivory, which they exported from Africa and sold to the Roman Empire.  About 380AD the kingdom converted from polytheism to Judaism.  These 15mm convex silver half denarius depict a male's head facing right, with a monogram and a trident behind.  The reverse features a smaller head, an ornamented scepter and inscriptions.  The coins were minted from about 100 to 200AD.  Though struck in high relief, the coins show only minimal wear.  It is a scarce and attractive coin from a little-known ancient kingdom.
Item HIMYARITE HIMYARITE KINGS OF ARABIA SILVER 1/2 DENARIUS ca.100-200AD XF $135.00



NEWANCIENT SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM OF PEROZ

Sasanian silver drachm of Peroz 457-484ADPeroz ruled the vast Sasanian Empire, which stretched from India to Turkey, between 457 and 484AD.  The name Peroz, means “The Victor”, though throughout much of his reign he was hardly victorious.  The early years of his reign was spent fighting with his brother over control of the Empire, whom he eventually defeated.  The country suffered from seven years of drought and famine starting in 464.  Some sources state that mighty Tigris and Euphrates rivers both dried up.  Wells dried up, crops failed and thousands died.  No sooner than the country recovered from the famine, than Peroz attacked the Hephthalite (White) Huns.  He suffered a crushing defeat, was captured, and forced to surrender his son as a hostage until a large ransom was paid.   In 481AD he was defeated by the Kushans.   The province of Armenia successfully revolted and was lost to the Empire.   He then again attacked the Huns, and was again defeated.  Peroz, along with much of his army, was slaughtered.   This silver Drachm of Peroz pictures the emperor wearing a winged helmet on one side.  The other side depicts two priests in front at a fire alter, an allusion to the official state Zoroastrian religion.
Item SAS-PEROZ SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM, PEROZ 457-484AD XF $89.75



NEWATTRACTIVE HIGH GRADE ANCIENT SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM OF KHUSRU II

Sasanian silver drachm of Khusro II 591-628ADThis silver Drachm struck in the name of Sasanian Emperor Khusro II (Khusraw II, Khosrau II) is over 1300 years old, yet is in Almost Uncirculated condition.  Khusro II was the last great Sasanian Emperor before the Muslim conquest. He reigned from 591 to 628AD.  He was initially put on the throne by his uncles, who deposed, blinded then killed his father. An army commander however usurped the throne and defeated K Khusro in battle.  Khusro regained the throne with the help of Byzantine Emperor Maurice.  After appointing his uncles to high positions, he had one of them murdered.  The other escaped and led a seven-year revolt against Khusro until he was captured and killed.   Khusro attacked the Byzantine Empire after Maurice was murdered in 602AD.  That war lasted the rest of his reign.  Though Khusro was initially successful, the Byzantines eventually defeated the Sasanian forces.  In 628 Khusro’s son, Kavadh II revolted, captured and executed Khusro, along with most of his family.  Kavadh then made peace with Byzantines, giving them territory and paying an indemnity.  This attractive, high grade silver Drachm depicts Khusro on the obverse and a Zoroastrian fire altar with two attendants on the reverse.  The coin shows no or minimal wear, though is weakly struck in parts due to its thin planchet.  The coin is dated 628AD, the last year of his reign.  It was apparently struck in the Tajikistan region some 10 to 20 years following his death. It may have been struck due to a shortage of Drachms needed for the Silk Road trade.  At that time the Sasanian Empire was in its final death throes, beset by dynastic wars, the loss to the Byzantines, and the Muslim conquest.  The coin grades an amazing Almost Uncirculated.
Item SAS-KH2 SASANIAN DRACHM TYPE OF KHUSRO II 591-628AD, AU $89.75



FIRST UNIFIED CURRENCY OF ANCIENT CHINA Restocked Ancient Chinese Pan Liang coin, 140-118BC

The Ban Liang (Pan Liang) was the first unified currency of China.  It was a cast round uniface copper coin with a square hole with the two characters "Ban Liang", which roughly translates as "half ounce"  The coin was introduced about 210BC with a weight of 12 Shu. About 175BC it was officially reduced to 4 Shu, then later to 3 Shu.  The basic design of a round, cast coin with a square hole became the standard that China continued to use for over 2000 years!  Considering its age, it is a remarkably inexpensive coin.
Item CN-BAN CHINA, BAN LIANG COIN 175-118BC (Scj. 107+) Fine  $12.50


THE REMARKABLE WU-CH'U COIN 

Ancient Chinese Wu Shu coin, 118BC - circa 500ADIn 118BC Emperor Yuan-shou withdrew the Ban-Liang coin and introduced a new coin, called the Wu Ch'u (Wu Zhu) worth 5 Shu.  Unlike the earlier Pan Liang coins it had a raised rim to prevent filing.  The coin proved quite popular, and except for the Wang Mang interregnum, it continued to be issued in various versions for the next six centuries!  Now that is significant monetary stability.
Item CN-WU CHINA WU-CH'U COIN 118BC - circa 500AD (Scj.114+) F-VF $7.00




ONLY COIN OF THE SHORT-LIVED SUI DYNASTY OF CHINA

China, Sui Dynasty Wu Chu coin, 581-618ADThe Sui Dynasty lasted only 37 years, from 581 to 618AD, yet led a major transition in China’s history.  The dynasty united China for the first time after four centuries of division and strife.  Buddhism was encouraged and Confucian rituals reintroduced. Major construction projects were undertaken, including upgrades to the Great Wall and construction of the Grand Canal which is still in use today.  The canal connected northern and southern China together with the inland capitals of the dynasty.  Major reforms were implemented, redistribution of farm lands, including making the penal code and administrative rules fairer, more lenient and simpler, taxation reform, and a major coinage reform.  A new, well made, broad-rimmed Wu Chu coin with distinct characters was introduced. The Dynasty conquered northern Vietnam and made a disastrous attempt to conquer Korea.  Large numbers of conscripts were needed for the construction projects and to fight wars, leading to a shortage of agricultural workers.   The heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties needed for the ambitious wars and construction projects led to widespread revolts and the dynasty was overthrown in 618AD.
Item CN-SUI CHINA, SUI DYNASTY WU CH'U 581-618AD VF $12.00


FAMOUS K'AI YUAN COIN OF THE TANG DYNASTY 

China 1 Cash K'ai Yuan coin of Tang Dynasty The K'ai Yuan coin was introduced by Chinese Emperor Kao Tsu, who founded the Tang Dyansty in 618AD.  The coins replaced the previously used Wu-Chu and other coins.  The high quality of the coins and excellent calligraphy set a standard for Chinese coins for the next 1000 years!   The legend on the coin, K'ai Yuan Tung Pao translates as "precious currency of the K'ai Yuan era".   The Tang Dynasty was a brilliant period in Chinese history.  It was an era of great prosperity and artistry.   The K'ai Yuan coin continued to be issued for the next 300 years, until the collapse of the Dynasty in 907AD.   During much of the dynasty the coin was the only denomination struck.  Because of the relatively low value of the coin and the high level of commerce a LOT of the coins were issued during that period. (Think of doing all your transactions with only pennies!)   As a result the coin, though over 1000 years old, is still plentiful and inexpensive.
Item CN-KAI CHINA K'AI YUAN 1 CASH COIN 618-907AD Scj. 312+ Fine-VF $4.50
Item CN-KAIx10 10 PIECES OF CHINA K'AI YUAN 1 CASH COIN 618-907AD Fine-VF $25.00
Item CN-KAIx25 25 PIECES OF CHINA K'AI YUAN 1 CASH COIN 618-907AD Fine-VF $49.50



ANCIENT KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER COIN 

Kushano-Sassanian copper coins, Kobad, circa 330-350ADAfter the split of the Kushan Empire around 230AD, the eastern portion became a vassal state of the Sasanian Empire is known as the Kushano-Sassanians.  It controlled parts of what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan. It remained until about 350AD, when the area was conquered by the White Huns (Hephthalites).  These small, crude copper coins, sometimes called a Drachm or a unit, were minted between about 241 and 350AD. They are some of the last coins of the Kushano-Sasanians. They are modeled after the Sasanian silver Drachm, however are smaller, much cruder and made of copper.  One side features the bust of the king, the other features a Zoroastrian fire altar. 
Item KUSHAN-SAS KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER DRACHM, ca.241-350AD G-CRUDE $5.00



MEDIEVAL SILVER COINS OF THE HABBARID AMIRS OF SINDH 

Sindh silver Damma of Abdullah ca.884-913ADSind silver Dhamma of Ali, circa 973-987ADSindh (Sind) is located in what is now the south-eastern portion of Pakistan.  The Habbaris were Arab traders and merchants that settled in Sindh in pre-Islamic times.  Despite living in India for hundreds of years and marrying locals, they maintained their Arab identity, language and customs.  By the mid 9th century AD they were able to assert control over Sindh, paying only nominal allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph. The coinage of the Habbarids of Sind (also known as the Amirs of Sindh) consisted of  small (10 to 11mm) silver Dammas (Dhammas) that feature Arabic inscriptions on both sides.  In 1026 Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud conquered Sindh.  We are pleased to offer silver Dammas of two of the Habbarid sultans of Sindh.  Abdallah I, who ruled from about 884 to 913AD, and Ali, who ruled from about 973 to 987AD
Item SINDH-ABD SINDH SILVER DAMMA, ABDALLAH ca.884-913AD VF $8.00
Item SINDH-ALI SINDH SILVER DAMMA, ALI ca. 973-987AD VF $7.00



FORMER SLAVE FOUNDS GHAZNAVID DYNASTY

Ghaznavid silver dirham of Sabuketekin 977-997ADAt its peak the Ghaznavids controlled a vast central Asian empire that included Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India as well as parts of Iran and Turkmenistan.  The founder of the dynasty was Sabuktekin (Sabuktigin).  In his youth he was captured in a tribal war and sold as a slave.  He was eventually purchased by Alptigin, the governor of Ghazna, who so recognized his potential.  He later married the Alptgin's daughter.   In 977 he became governor of Ghazna, which became a semi-independent kingdom within the Samanid Empire.  He expanded his kingdom, conquering much of which is now Afghanistan.  He died in 997 after becoming sick on a military campaign.  His son Mahmud, declared full independence and further expanded the territory.  This silver dirham of Sabuktigin was struck at Farwan in Afghanistan.  One side cites the Shada (There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his messenger).  The other side acknowledges his Samanid overlord and the Abbasid Caliph.  The silver coin is approximately 17mm.
Item GHAZ-SEBUK GHAZNAVID SILVER DIRHAM OF SABUKTEKIN 977-997AD A-1599 Fine $18.00



NEWTHE FAMOUS BULL & HORSEMAN JITAL

India-Afghanistan Bull & Horseman Jital, circa 1000ADThe Bull and Horseman Jital was introduced by the Hindu Kings in Kabul and Ohind (now Afghanistan and Pakistan) in the 9th century.  One side featured a humped bull.  The other side a man on a horse holding a lance.  The coins became the standard for much of Afghanistan and northern India.  It continued to be struck for hundreds of years by neighboring and successive kingdoms. It gradually become cruder and more debased as each generation would copy the design from coins found in circulation.  These Bull and Horseman Jitals date from around the 10th to 11th century.  They are made of debased silver and feature crude line drawings of the bull and horseman.  I do not have the time or patience to do an exact attribution so am letting them go cheap.
Item B&H INDIA BI BULL & HORSEMAN JITAL circa 1000AD VF-crude $7.50




MEDIEVALCOIN OF THE SULTANATE OF JAUNPUR  Restocked

Jaunpur Sultanate, copper 1 Fals coin of Ibrahim Shah, 1402-1440ADJaunpur was a powerful Sultanate in north-central India. Jaunpur was established in 1349 by the Sultan of Delhi who later appointed his daughter's lover the governor.   In 1393 the governor declared independence.  Jaunpur reached its peak under Ibrahim Shah, who reigned from 1402 to 1440.  He attacked but was unable to conquer Delhi to the west. His war with the Bengal Sultanate to the east was only ended after diplomatic pressure from the Ming Empire of China and Timurid Empire.  Ibrahim Shah was a patron of Islamic learning and established a number of colleges which produced many scholarly works on Islamic theology.  In 1480 Jaunpur was conquered by Delhi, bringing an end to the Sultanate.
Item JAUNPUR JAUNPUR COPPER FALS, IBRAHIM SHAH 1402-1440 VF $5.00
Item JAUNPURx10 10 of the above JAUNPUR FALS OF IBRAHIM SHAH 1402-1440 VF $35.00


RICHARD THE LIONHEART

Richard the Lionheart, 1169-1199AD silver DenierRichard the Lionheart was the King of England, Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony and Lord of Cyprus. Though he was born in England he disliked the country and spent less than six months there throughout his entire reign.  He regarded it as little more than a source of tax revenue. Most of his reign was spent in France, on Crusade or as a prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI who held him for ransom while he was attempting to return home from the Third Crusade.  Richard's knightly prowess made him a popular king and the subject of legends. During the Third Crusade he occupied Sicily and captured Cyprus with the aid of Levon of Armenia before arriving in the Holy Land in 1191. He sold Cyprus to the Knights Templar   In 1199 Richard died after being wounded while laying siege to a castle in an effort to get a hoard of gold that had been found by a peasant.  Richard’s coins from England are very scarce and pricy.  This Anglo-Gallic silver Denier of Richard the Lionheart is much more reasonable.  The coin has a simple design. One side has his name on it “RICA / DIUS” while the other has a cross and the name of the mint (Aquitaine or Poitou).  As is typical of coins of that era, it is crudely engraved and weakly struck.
Item LIONHEART RICHARD THE LIONHEART 1169-1199 SILVER DENIER VG-Crude $125.00




CRUSADER COIN OF BOHEMOND THE CHILD

Crusaders of Antioch , Bohemond III silver Denier, 1163-1201Bohemond III of the Crusader Principality of Antioch, also known as Bohemond the Child and Bohemond the Stammerer, ascended to the throne in 1163.  He then exiled his mother who had served as his regent since he was age one. .In 1180 he deserted his wife in favor of Sibyl, who may have been a spy for Saladin  This led to an escalating stuggle with the Church. Bohemond was excommunicated. In retaliation he confiscated the church's property, which led to an Antioch placed under interdict, which then led to armed conflicts.  The conflict was partially solved through mediation and the leaders of the opposition fled to Cilician Armenia.  In 1185 he invited the king Roupen III of Cilician Armenia to a banquet but imprisoned him instead.  He then invaded Cilician Armenia.  A peace treaty was signed which released the Roupen in return for a large ransom, Roupon acknowledging Bohemond's suzerainty and giving Bohemond territory.  Upon his release Roupon promptly recaptured the territory. In 1194 Cilician Armenian King Levon I (Leo)  invited Bohemond to negotiate over a castle Leo had captured, but instead took Bohemond prisoner. Bohemond was released after giving up claims on Armenia.  Bohemond was involved in the disputes over the dynastic succession of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, which led to Saladin's capture of Jerusalem in 1187. In 1188 Saladin captured much of northern Syria, and forced surrender of fortresses of the Knights Templar.  Bohemond pleaded for a truce, which Saladin granted, but left him only with his capital and its port.  The Third Crusade was called in 1189 in an attempt to recapture Jerusalem.  During the Crusade Bohemond twice met with Richard the Lionheart, but did not provide any military assistance to the Crusaders.  Upon Bohemond's death in 1201, a series of wars broke out among his successors over control of his territory. This was not resolved until 1219.  The obverse of this silver Denier of Antioch a crude portrait of Bohemond III wearing a helmet and chain mail.  A crescent moon is to the left and a star to the right. The reverse features a cross and a crescent.   It is an historic coin from what was an important Crusader kingdom.
Item ANTIOCH CRUSADER PRINCIPALITY OF ANTIOCH, BOHEMOND III DENIER 1163-1201 VG-FINE $95.00



FIRST SILVER COIN OF MEDIEVAL ARMENIA

Armenia, silver Tram of Levon I, 1198-1219About 1198 Levon I (also called Leo II, Leon II and Levon the Magnificant) was crowned as the first king of Cilcian Armenia.  He had ruled the territory as Lord of Armenia since 1187, after his brother was captured by Bohemond III of Antioch and retired to a monastery. As king he had the privilege of issuing the first Armenian coins since ancient times.  He established a powerful Christian kingdom and was a strong supporter of the Third Crusade. He had numerous intrigues and conflicts with Bohemond III of Antioch, at one point taking him and his family prisoner after inviting them to castle. He was later involved in the War of the Antiochene Succession after Bohemond's death.  He joined Richard the Lion Heart in the conquest of Cyprus and was actively involved in the numerous political plots and intrigues of the Crusader kingdoms and neighboring kingdoms.  These crude silver Trams are approximately 22mm in diameter.  One side pictures King Levon seated upon his throne.  The reverse shows a lion and leopard with a cross.  It is an historic Armenian coin with a close connection to the Crusades. 
Item AM-LEVON ARMENIA SILVER TRAM OF LEVON I 1198-1219 F-VF-crude $65.00



POLITICAL INTRIGUE IN THE MIDDLE AGES - BAVARIAN PFENNIG OF OTTO II

Bavaria silver Pfennig of Duke Otto II and Bishop Siegfried of Regensburg, 1231-40This silver pfennig was a joint issue of Duke Otto II of Bavaria, also known as Otto the Illustrious, who ruled from 1231 to 1253 and Bishop Siegfried of Regensburg.  It was a period of intense political intrigue.  The Duke, the Bishop and the Burghers were all vying for control of Regensburg while Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick II and Pope were vying for supremacy over Europe.  In 1227 newly elected Pope Gregory IX appointed Siegfried as Bishop of Regensburg. The appointment was supported by Frederick, but opposed by the Duke Ludwig of Bavaria who supported another candidate.  The following year Frederick and Pope Gregory had a falling out over control over Frederick's imperial power in Italy and Frederick's failure to honor his pledge to go on a crusade to the Holy Land. The Pope supported Frederick's son, Henry in his effort to gain control of his father's territories in Italy and Germany. Siegfried persuaded Frederick to grant a charter of rights to the burghers of Regensburg, in an effort to limit the power of the Duke Ludwig who was a supporter of Henry.  In 1231 Ludwig as murdered under unclear circumstances and his son Otto became Duke of Bavaria.  The pope and Fredrick briefly made peace before he again excommunicated Fredrick.  Pope Gregory went so far as to declare Frederick to be the Anti-Christ. The pope sought support by requesting Duke Otto to summon a council in which the bishops would be ordered to support a Papal ban against Frederick.  Many bishops, including Sigismund defied the summons and openly prayed for Gregory.  In response Albrecht, the Papal Legate excommunicated Bishop Siegfried.   Those attempting to post or proclaim the papal bans were attacked and many papal supporters fled Regensburg.  The Papal Legate then placed the entire city under interdict.  Duke Otto ended his disputes Fredrick and joined Siegfried in supporting the emperor.  Pope Gregory died in 1241 but the conflict between the Papacy and Frederick continued under his successor, Innocent IV.  In 1245 the pope stripped him of his Fredrick of his titles and crowns and began an active campaign to undermine him by and replacing his supporters in the clergy.  Mendicant friars were sent into the marketplaces to preach against the emperor.  In 1246 Bishop Siegfried switched his support from Fredrick to the Pope.  The burghers then forced the bishop into exile. Fredrick issued a document revoking the bishop's authority over public affairs of the city, handing it over to the burghers.  Siegfried responded by placing the city again under interdict, forbidding clergy from holding services and stirring up dissension.   Clergy loyal to the emperor in Regensburg continued religious services while clergy loyal to the pope were harassed and humiliated.  Duke Otto gave his daughter in marriage to Fredrick's son King Conrad.  In response the Pope excommunicated Otto.  In 1250 the new bishop of Regensburg persuaded Bohemian king Ottocar III to intervene.  His troops devastated the region and city almost fell, until rescued by the troops of Duke Otto and King Conrad.  Fredrick died in December 1250, bringing to an end to his conflict with the Pope.  This silver Pfennig was issued Duke Otto II and Bishop Siegfried between 1231 and 1240 in Regensburg. The 20mm coin has a lion on one side and an eagle on the other, but is so poorly struck it is hard to make out much of the design. It is an inexpensive historic coin from a period of turmoil between the church and state in high medieval Europe.
Item BAV-OTTO BAVARIA SILVER PFENNIG, DUKE OTTO II & BISHOP SIEGFRIED, REGENSBURG 1231-1240 CRUDE $12.50
Item BAV-OTTOx5 5 of the above BAVARIA SILVER PFENNIG, 1231-1240 CRUDE $48.00
Item BAV-OTTOx25 25 of the above BAVARIA SILVER PFENNIG, 1231-1240 CRUDE $175.00



PHILIP VI OF FRANCE STARTS THE 100 YEARS WAR

France, Philip VI silver Double Tournois (1348)Philip VI became the King of France in 1328 after his uncle, Charles IV of France died without a son.  His cousin, Edward III of England was also a claimant.  The French nobility preferred Philip and Edward initially accepted Philip's claim to the throne.  After a series of disagreements Philip seized Edward's territories in France.  In return Edward asserted his claim to the throne of France, thus starting the 100 Years War between England and France in 1337.  France, being wealthier and more populous had the advantage going into the war.  After initial successes, the French navy was decimated at the Battle of Sluys in 1340 and suffered another major defeat at Battle of Cercy in 1346.  In 1348 the Black Death struck France, killing a third of the population in the next few years.  The resulting labor shortage caused soaring inflation and destabilized the country.  The king's attempt to fix prices further destabilized the country. This silver Double Tournois of Philip VI was struck in 1348, at the start of the Black Plague.  The royal crown is on one side and a processional cross is on the other.
Item PHIL6 FRANCE PHILIP VI SILVER DOUBLE TOURNOIS (1348) VG-F-CRUDE $69.00



CHRIST FEATURED ON SILVER GROSH OF THE LAST MEDIEVAL KING OF BULGARIA

Bulgaria silver Grosch, Ivan Stratsimir 1356-1396Ivan Sratsimir was the last king of the medieval Bulgarian Kingdom.  He reigned from the city of Vidin from 1356, until he was captured and killed by the Ottoman Turks in 1396.   One side of this 16mm silver Grosch depicts the bust of Christ, blessing with his right hand and holding the Gospel in his left.  To his right and left is the Christogram "IC – XC".  The other side depicts the king seated on his throne holding a scepter in his right hand.  The coin shows little if any wear, but is rather crudely struck. 
Item BG-SRATSIMIR BULGARIA SILVER GROSH OF IVAN SRATSIMIR 1356-96 VF-crude $85.00



MEDIEVAL VENETIAN SILVER COIN DEPICTS CHRIST & ST. MARK

Venice, silver Grosso of Antonio Venier, 1382-1400, depicts Christ and Saint MarkThis silver Grosso was issued for Antonio Venier who was Doge of the Venetian Republic from 1382 until his death in 1400.  Under his rule Venice acquired numerous Mediterranean islands, including Corfu and most of Cyclades and Dodecanese. He became renowned for his sense of justice after allowing his own son to die in prison for his crimes.  One side of the coin depicts Jesus Christ seated upon a throne.  The other side shows St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice, handing the doge a banner. 
Item VENICE VENICE GROSSO ANTONIO VENIER 1382-1400 VF-crude $125.00





BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT

Bishopric of Borpat silver Lubische (Pfennig) 1379-1441The Bishopric of Dorpat (now Tartu) was a prince-bishopric that once controlled much of what is now south-eastern Estonia. It was an important Hanseatic trade center.  This small (about 12mm) silver 1 Lubische (late called 1 Pfennig) was issued by the Bishops of Dorpat between 1379 and 1441.  During this period the Bishopric was in conflict with the Knights of the Livonian Order who controlled adjacent territories. Both sides of the coin depict the arms of the Bishopric which consists of a crossed key and sword.  The Dorpat Cathedral, the seat of the Bishop, was once one of the largest religious structures in Eastern Europe.  It was heavily damaged in the 1520's during the Protestant Reformation and was abandoned after the last Bishop was deported to Russia in 1558.  Ruins of the once grand cathedral are now part of the grounds of the University of Tartu. The coin is a reminder of a once powerful but now extinct Bishopric.
Item DORPAT BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT SILVER LUBISCHE 1379-1441 VG-F-CRUDE $12.00
Item DORPATx5 5 PIECES OF THE ABOVE BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT SILVER LUBISCHE 1379-1441 VG-F-CRUDE $45.00
Item DORPATx25 25 PIECES OF THE ABOVE BISHOPRIC OF DORPAT SILVER LUBISCHE 1379-1441 VG-F-CRUDE $175.00


NEWTEUTONIC ORDER COIN FROM THE BANAT OF SEVERIN

Teutonic Order - The Banit of Severin, Obol of Nikolaus van Redwitz 1430-1434By the end of the 14th Century the Ottoman Turks had conquered much of the Balkans and were threatening Hungary.  In 1429, Sigismund, King of Hungary asked the Teutonic Order for help in fighting the Turks.  Teutonic Knights under the command of Komtur Nikolaus von Redwitz came to help defend the Iron Gates, the narrowest part of the Danube.  In exchange the Knights were given land near Severin, a border area between Transylvania and the Ottoman Empire.  The Knights were at first successful and in 1431 Nikolaus von Redwitz was given the titles “Banus of Severin” and “Count of the Mint and Salt Chambers in Transylvania”.   However, the Hungarian nobility prevented the Knights from strengthening their fortifications and denied them help in their fight against the Turks.  Without the needed support, the Knights withdrew and returned to Prussia in 1434.  This small, crude, debased Obol was struck in Severin by Nikolaus von Redwitz between 1430 and 1434.  One side bears a crowned shield with a cross. A standing figure is on the other side.   A small hoard recently came out making this rare Teutonic Order coin from a little-known territory affordable – until the hoard is gone.
Item SEVERIN TEUTONIC KNIGHTS-BANAT OF SEVERIN, NIKOLAUS VON REDWITZ, OBOL 1430-34 CRUDE $24.00



FRIEDRICH THE IRONTOOTH OF BRANDENBURG

Brandenburg, Fredrick II, the Iron, silver bracteate hohlpfennig 1440-1470 Saurma 4675This silver Bracteate Hohlpfennig was issued by Friedrich II (Frederick II) who was the Prince-Elector of the Margravate of Brandenburg from 1440 to 1470. It is believed that he was nicknamed "The Irontooth" or "The Iron" due to his great strength and power.  Friedrich strengthened Brandenburg forming the basis of what was to become Prussia and the German Empire.  The rights of the towns and nobility were curtailed and he regained Neumark (East Brandenburg) from the Teutonic Knights.  The citizens of Berlin revolted when he attempted to build a palace on Colin island in the Spree river.  Friedrich prevailed, built the castle that became the Stadtschloss (Berlin Palace), and the rights of the city were greatly curtailed. The Stadtschloss was torn down by East Germany in the 1950's and is now being rebuilt.  The silver Bracteate Hohlpfennig is an extremely thin and single sided coin wtih a raised rim.  The design is embossed from the reverse.  This coin is approximately 16mm in diameter and features an eagle with outstretched wings.  Because the coins are so thin and fragile, few survive today.
Item BRAND BRANDENBURG SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-1470, Saurma 4675 F-VF $39.00



MEDIEVAL CITY COINS OF THE MARGARVIATE OF BRANDENBURG

Brandenburg, City of Stendal, silver Hohlpfennig, Friedrich II 1440-1480, Bahrfeldt 19  Brandenburg, Frankfurt (Oder), silver Hohlpfennig, Friedrich II 1440-1480 Bahrfeldt 16
These medieval city Hohlpfennigs were issued during the reign of Friedrich II Irontooth, who was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1440 to 1470.  A Hohlpfennig is a thin silver coin, about 16mm in diameter with a raised rim. The coin design is embossed on one side and incuse on the other. They were widely used in Northern Germany in the late Middle Ages.  The coins depict the arms of the city in which they were struck. The coin from Stendal depicts half an eagle on the left and four diamonds on the right.  Stendal is located about 78 miles (125km) west of Berlin. It the joined Hanseatic League in 1358 and purchased the privilege of minting from the Brandenburg margraves in 1369.  In 1456 Friedrich II founded a convent for Augustinian nuns in the city, which today is a museum.  The Hohlpfennig from Frankfurt an der Oder features a plumed knight's helmet. Frankfurt (Oder) is located about 50 miles (80km.) east of Berlin on the Oder river on what is now the German-Polish border.  It was founded as a Polish town.  In 1249 it became part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg,  The knight's helmet design makes this one of the more interesting Hohlpfennigs.
Item STENDAL STENDAL SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-70, Bahrfeldt 19 VF-crude $29.50
Item FRANK-O FRANKFURT (ODER) SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-70, Bahrfeldt 16 VF-crude $33.50


SILVER COIN OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

The Ottoman Empire was a vast, rich, powerful empire that at its peak spanned three continents, including much of southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in what is now Turkey, and lasted until 1922. Its early coinage consisted primarily of small, poorly struck silver coins.  We are pleased to offer some of the coins of some of the Ottoman's most important early Sultans. Because the coins were produced in large quantities and have not been widely collected, they are still quite reasonably priced. 
 and the Karamanids.  In 1450 he led his army into Albania but fell ill and died. This silver Akce of Murad is dated AH825 (1421 AD). It was minted at Serez, which is now Serres in Macedonia. The coin is about 11 to 14mm in diameter.  
Ottoman, Suleyman I the Magnificent, Silver Medini AH925 = 1520ADSuleiman the Magnificent (Suleyman I) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566.  During his long reign he greatly expanded his empire, conquering much of the Middle East, North Africa, most of Hungary and laid siege to Vienna twice.  He instituted major reforms in education, taxation and criminal law.  He was an accomplished poet, goldsmith and patron of the arts.    This silver Medini (3 Akces) of Suleiman was struck at the Amid mint, in what is now Diyabakir in Turkey. Diyabakir, located on the Tigris River is considered the "un-proclaimed capital of so-called Turkish Kurdistan".  The silver coin is approximately 13mm in diameter and is dated AH926 (1520AD).  It is an historic coin of an historic monarch.
Item TR-SUL OTTOMAN, SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT SILVER MEDINI AH926=1520AD, AMID MINT VG-crude $6.00



SILVER DENAR OF TRANSYLVANIA

Transylvania silver 1 Denar of Gabriel Bethlen 1621 KM120This silver Dener of Transylvania was struck for Gabriel Bethlen. Bethlen became the Prince Transylvania in 1613 with support from the Ottoman Empire.  His reign marked the start of a golden age for Transylvania.  He developed mines and industry, founded a college and supported the arts. He nationalized much of the foreign trade, profits of which helped support his many programs.  He was Calvinist, and waged three wars against the Catholic Hapsburgs.  In 1620 he was elected King of Hungary.  After a string of military defeats by Hapsburg forces, he renounced the title in 1621 in return for guarantees of religious freedom for Hungarian Protestants..  The obverse depicts the Madonna and Child.   The reverse has the arms of Hungary.  The slightly irregular coin is approximately 13mm.  The coins dated 1620 or 1621 were struck at  struck at the Kremnica Mint (KB) and show virtually no wear. 
Item TRANSY-1620 TRANSYLVANIA 1 DENAR 1620 KM120 XF-AU $75.00
Item TRANSY-1621 TRANSYLVANIA 1 DENAR 1621 KM120 XF-AU $75.00
Item TRANSY-1626 TRANSYLVANIA 1 DENAR 1626 KM162 VF $65.00



ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COIN SPECIAL  

A selection of three different identified ancient and medieval coins, including one silver coin.   The coins are primarily from India and central Asia.  This was one of my best sellers for almost 40 years, however  I had to discontinue it due to the lack of affordable ancients. Due to a very fortunate recent purchase, we can again offer this special deal.   Each coin is identified in its own envelope.  Coins grade Good to Very Fine.  Multiple lots will most likely contain the same coins.
Item 3A&M 3 IDENTIFIED ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS INCLUDING SILVER $9.75


ALSO SEE:

Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF AFGHANISTAN

Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF INDIA and  PAKISTAN

MEDIEVAL COINS OF THE MIDDLE EAST

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL CHINESE COINS



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Email: orders@joelscoins.com

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