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ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COINS



NEWWORLD'S FIRST COINS FROM INDIA

India silver punchmarked Karshapanas, ca. 600BC-200BCIndia developed some of the world's first coins. (scholars debate exactly which coin was first and when).  Sometime around 600BC in the lower Ganges valley in eastern India a coin called a punchmarked Karshapana was created.  It was made by taking a flat, though often irregularly shaped, piece of silver, cutting it to the proper weight, then applying a series of punches to the front of it.. The punches include a wide variety of symbols.  The silver coins typically weigh about 3.6 grams and are about 12 to 17mm. As the coin circulated, bankers or merchants would sometimes apply additional small punches on the back, verifying the weight and fineness of the coin.  Vast quantities of the coins were issued by the Magadha Kingdom (circa 600-321BC) and Mauryan Empire (321-187BC) so they are relatively plentiful and inexpensive today. The punchmarked Karshapana was issued until about the second century BC, however the influence of this ancient coin is still felt today.  The English word, "cash", is derived from the Sanskrit word, kārsha. 
Item IN-PUNCH INDIA SILVER KARSHAPANA PUNCHMARKED COIN circa 600-200BC VG-F $12.50
Item IN-PUNCHx5 5 DIFFERENT INDIA SILVER KARSHAPANA PUNCHMARKED COINS VG-F $55.00


Taxila & Gandhara silve bent bar satamana coin, ca. 600-300BCTaxila & Gandhara silve bent bar satamana coin, ca. 600-300BCAlso around 600BC,  a different style of coin came into being around Taxila and Gandhara in Northern Pakistan and Afghanistan called the "bent bar" Satamana.  It was made by cutting thick strips of silver to the proper weight and punching a 7-armed “taxila” symbol is on either end of the bar.  The coins were struck while hot, resulting in their "bent" shape.  The convex side is blank.  The coins are about 35 to 40mm long and weigh about 11grams.  Taxila and Gandhara were major centers of overland trade with Persia and Mesopotamia, which may have influenced the development of the coin.  The weight is very close to that of the Babylonian weight called a shekel (it was not yet a coin) and ancient bar shaped silver ingots have been found in Iran.  The "bent bar" Satamana was made of good silver and struck from about the 600 to 300BC.  
Item IN-GAND TAXILA-GANDHARA SILVER BENT BAR, circa 600-300BC, Fine $150.00




NEWANCIENT BENT-BAR COIN OF INDIA

India, Kuru & Panchala billon bent bar satamana coin, circa 450-340BCThis unusual bent-bar Satamana is one of the earliest coins of India.  It is believed to have been issued by the Kuru and Panchala realms in north-central India between about 450BC and 350BC.  The thick, slightly bent billon (low grade silver) are approximately 22 to 24mm long, 11 to 14mm wide and about 3mm thick.  A crude seven-armed “taxila” symbol is on either end on the concave side of the bar, the convex side is blank.  The coins are modeled after the silver Taxila and Gandhara bent bar coins used in what is now Pakistan.  It is an interesting and affordable example of a very early coin.
Item IN-BAR KURU & PANCHALA BENT BAR SATAMANA COIN, circa 450-350BC $29.50



SILVER & BRONZE COINS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT 

Alexander the Great Silver Drachm Alexander the Great Bronze coin
As a youth, Alexander was taught by Aristotle. Upon the assassination of his father in 336BC, Alexander became the King of Macedonia at age 20. His army quickly conquered the Greek states and he then set off across Asia. With brilliant military and political tactics he soon conquered Egypt, where he founded the city of Alexandria, and the Persian Empire. He continued conquering all in his path. In 326BC he reached India. There his army, weary from the endless fighting, tropical rains and from being away from home, mutinied, refusing to go any further. Alexander was forced to return to Susa, the capital of the former Persian Empire. He died three years later, after a prolonged banquet and drinking binge. Until his reign, Greek coins did not show mortals. But Alexander sought to proclaim himself as a God.   We have both the silver Drachm and bronze 4 Chalkoi (also called a hemiobol).  The silver Drachm is approximately 17mm and features Zeus seated, holding an eagle on the reverse.  The bronze 4 Chalkoi is approximately 18mm and features a club and a gorytos (a case for bow and quiver) on the reverse.  Both are historic coins of a great king.
Item ALEX-DRACHM ALEXANDER THE GREAT SILVER DRACHM, 336-323BC VG-F out
Item ALEX-AE ALEXANDER THE GREAT BRONZE 4 CHALKOI, 336-323BC S6739 F-VF $69.50



NEWANCIENT ROMAN SILVER COINS BELOW ORIGINAL FACE VALUE!

Roman silver Denarius, late 1st-early 3rd cent. AD.According to the Bible the standard wage for a laborer was one Roman Silver Denarius (Mark 20:1-2).  Based on the minimum wage in the United States today that would about $58 to $80.   We purchased a nice hoard of ancient Roman Silver Denarii which we can offer for less than their face value in ancient times!  This hoard contains a nice mix of types from the late 1st to the early 3rd century AD, grading Good to Fine. Most coins portray the emperor or empress on the front and a god or goddess on the back.  Coins are guaranteed to be genuine. I do not have the time or patience to identify them, so will sell them as they come for less than their original face value!
Item ROM-DENx1 1 ANCIENT ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS Good-Fine $29.50
Item ROM-DENx5 5 DIFFERENT ANCIENT ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS Good-Fine $139.50



NEWANCIENT ROMAN COPPER & BRONZE COINS

Ancient Roman, etc. copper & bronze coinsEvery time we get a batch of these genuine ancient Roman coins in, they always sell out.  This latest batch is a nice mix of mostly 3rd and 4th Century Roman copper and bronze coins, along with a few Byzantine and Greek coins. I don’t have the time or the patience to work these up individually.  The coins are as they come and every lot is different.
Item ROMEx1 1 ANCIENT ROMAN COPPER COINS, unidentified $6.00
Item ROMEx3 3 ANCIENT ROMAN, ETC.  COPPER COINS, unidentified $17.50
Item ROMEx10 10 ANCIENT ROMAN, ETC.  COPPER COINS, unidentified $55.00



THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY IN ANCIENT ROME - A SET OF 12 BRONZE COINS

Set of 12 Ancient Roman coins in folder - The Rise of Christianity
In the 300 years between the death of Jesus and the death of Constantine the Great, Christianity went from being the nascent belief system of a dozen disciples to the official religion of the mighty Roman Empire.  This remarkable collection tells the story in coins.  Gallienus issued the Edict of Toleration, making Christianity legal in the Empire for the first time.  Claudius II Gothicus reversed this decision, persecuting Christians in the realm.  Constantine I was the first Christian emperor.  he and Licinius I issued the Edict of Milan in 313, decreeing that all Christians in Rome must be treated benevolently.  Constantine's sons; Constantine II, Constantinus II and Constans maintained their father's policy.  Only Julian II, called the Aspotate by the Church, attempted to revert to paganism, but by then it was too late.  By the time of Valentinian, Valens and Gratian, Rome was officially Christian; indeed, those three emperors converted barbarians to Christianity.  This set of 12 ancient Roman bronze coins includes coins of Gallienus (253-258), Claudius II Gothicus (268-270), Constantine the Great (307-337), Licinius I (308-324), Constantine II (337-340), Constantinus II (337-361), Constans (337-350),  Donstantintius Gallus (351-34), Julian II the Apostate (360-364), Valentian I the Great (364-378), Valens (364-378) and Gratian (367-383).  After the Fourth Century Rome was often ruled by more than one emperor at the same time.    The obverse of each coin shows the portrait of the emperor at the time the coins were minted.  The reverse shows pictures and phrases depicting current concerns, history and mythology.  The coins grade Very Good or better.  They are guaranteed genuine and are packaged in an attractive descriptive folder.
Item CHRISTSET12 RISE OF CHRISTIANITY IN ANCIENT ROME: 12 BRONZE COINS IN ALBUM $99.75




ELEPHANT ON ANCIENT SATAVAHANA COIN

Satavanahana, Early Satakarni dynasty, potin Karshapana depicting elephant, circa 30-107AD, MAC 4941+An elephant is depicted on obverse of this ancient Karshapana of the Satavahana (Andhra) Empire. At its peak the empire controlled most of central and southern India.  The reverse depicts the Ujjain symbol, also known as the Satavahana symbol. The symbol comprises of four circles attached to the ends of the bars of a cross.  The coin was issued by the early Satakarni dynasty between about 30 AD and 107AD.  The Satavahana Empire ruled most of central and southern India and engaged in trade with the Roman Empire. The coin is struck in a copper and lead alloy called potin.
Item IN-SATAV SATAVAHANA KARSHAPANA, ELEPHANT, circa 30-107AD MAC4941+ Fine $19.50



BRONZE COIN OF THE KUSHAN EMPIRE Wholesale prices available to dealers

Kushan India, Bronze Tetradrachm of Soter Megas (Vima Takha) 80-105ADThe Kushan Empire covered much what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India from about the first to the third century AD.  They grew wealthy controlling trade centers on the Silk Road and on the Indus River and incorporated elements of the Greek, Roman, Chinese, Persian, Indian and other cultures into their lives.  Their coins incorporate Greek designs and often use a corrupted Greek alphabet in the legends.  We offer a well made bronze Tetradrachms of Kushan king “Soter Megas”.  The title "Soter Megas" means Great Savior.   The coin, which grades VG to Fine, shows the Greek style diademed bust of the king on one side, and the king on horseback on the other.  The king thought of himself as being so great, he did not need to put his actual name on the coin.  Until quite recently however, scholars did not know who really was!  It is now believed that he is Vima Takha who succeeded Kujula Kadphises, ruling from 80AD to 105AD.  He expanded his empire into what is now Pakistan.
Item SOTER KUSHAN BRONZE TETRADRACHM,  SOTER MEGAS 80-105AD VG-F $9.75





ANCIENT KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER COIN 

Kushano-Sassanian copper coins, Kobad, circa 330-350ADAfter the split of the Kushan Empire around 230AD, the eastern portion became a vassal state of the Sasanian Empire is known as the Kushano-Sassanians.  It controlled parts of what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan. It remained until about 350AD, when the area was conquered by the White Huns (Hephthalites).  These small, crude copper coins, sometimes called a Drachm or a unit, were minted between about 241 and 350AD. They are some of the last coins of the Kushano-Sasanians. They are modeled after the Sasanian silver Drachm, however are smaller, much cruder and made of copper.  One side features the bust of the king, the other features a Zoroastrian fire altar. 
Item KUSHAN-SAS KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER DRACHM, ca.241-350AD G-CRUDE $5.00



COINS OF THE KIDARITES

Kidarite copper coins, circa 350-500ADThe Kidarites were nomadic Huns that conquered the Kushano-Sassanians sometime around 350AD.  They are sometime referred to as the “Red Huns”.  Very little is known about them.  They controlled an area that now is made up of parts of northern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, as well as parts of TajikistanUzbekistan and Turkmenistan. . They ruled the region until about 500AD. The Kidarites appear to have been a confederacy of warlords, many of whom issued coins.  Not having had a tradition of coinage, they copied the basic designs and fabric of the coins they found in circulation without an apparent understanding of the meaning of the designs. Some of the coins are modeled on Sassanian or Kushano-Sassanian coins depicting the bust of the king and a fire altar.  Other coins are modeled after Kushan or other Indian coins and feature various deities or a standing king. There is a wide variety of extremely crude and primitive Kidarite copper coins.  These scarce, crude Kidarite copper coins are unusual pieces from a little know Hunnic tribe.
Item KIDARx1 KIDARITE COPPER UNIT, circa 350-500AD, CRUDE  $5.00


NEWFINAL RISE AND FALL OF THE SASANIAN EMPIRE

Sasanian Empire silver Drachm, Hormizd IV 579-590ADSasanian Empire silver Drachm, Khusru II (Khosrow II), 590 & 591-628AD
The Sasanian Empire ruled Persia and nearby territories from 224 to 651AD.  It engaged in endless wars with the Roman-Byzantine Empire during most of its over 400 years of existence.   Hormizd IV came to power upon the death of his father in 579.  Much of his reign was spent fighting against the Byzantine Empire and the Turks. He angered the Zoroastrian clergy by his tolerance towards the many Christians in his Empire, and angered the army after dismissing his popular general Bahram Chobin.  In 590 he was overthrown, blinded and killed in a palace coup led by Khusru II (Khosrow II) uncles, who then put 20-year-old Khusru II on the throne.  Some months later Bahram Chobin overthrew Khusru and claimed the throne himself.  Khusru then allied himself with Byzantine Emperor Maurice, who helped him regain his throne in exchange for Persian Armenia and western Georgia. There was a short-lived peace between Sasanian and Byzantine empires.  In 602 Byzantine Emperor Maurice was murdered by his General Phocas, who assumed the throne.  Khusru used this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire.  He regained the territory that he had given up, then proceeded to take Damascus, Jerusalem and Egypt from the Byzantines, expanding the Sassanian Empire to its greatest extent.  In 626 he attempted to Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, but was defeated.  The Byzantines then invaded and plundered the Persian heartlands and advanced towards the capital.  In 628 Khusru's son had his father killed and sued for peace with the Byzantines. The war left both sides militarily and economically exhausted.   A civil war then broke out between various court factions over control of the Sasanian empire which further weakened and destabilized the country.  About the same time the Arab Muslim forces began their attacks on the Sasanian empire, and by 651 conquered what had only a few years earlier been the largest and most powerful nation on earth. 
   The Sasanian drachm is a large, thin silver coin.  One side of the coin pictures the king.  The other side shows two priests in front at a fire alter, an allusion to the official state Zoroastrian religion. It widely circulated throughout central Asia and its design elements were copied by other nations for hundreds of years.  The Sasanian silver drachms often show weak areas. The coins are thin and the dies were relatively high relief, so parts of the designs are poorly struck. We offer coins of Hormizd IV that grade Fine to Very Fine, but may show a few weak areas.  We also have coins of Khusru II that show minimal or no wear, but have major weak areas caused by the poor minting techniques.
Item SAS-HORM SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM, HORMIZD IV 579-590 F-VF-weak $29.00
Item SAS-KHU SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM, KHUSRU II 590-628 XF-VERY WEAK STRIKE $25.00




NEWSILVER DRACHM OF THE PALAS OF BENGAL

Palas of Bengal silver Drachms, circa 850-950ADThe Pala Dynasty arose in Bengal India in the mid-eighth century after a period of anarchy.  They were astute diplomats, military conquerors and scholars.  They established and promoted universities, built grand temples and monasteries, their missionaries established Buddhism in Tibet, their army was noted for its corps of war elephants and it had an extensive navy.  These silver Drachms of the Palas were struck during a period of dynastic decline between about 850 and 950AD.  The designs of the coins are based on the Sasanian Drachm, which had not been stuck for hundreds of years. Each generation created new coins by copying the designs of the crudely made coins already found in circulation.  One side had the head of the king.  The other side had a fire altar. By the time the Palas came to power the coiners had no concept of what the original coins looked like, resulting in a design that bears little resemblance to the original.  Every coin is different, and every coin is crude.
Item IN-PALA PALAS OF BENGAL, SILVER DRACHM, circa 850-950AD VG-CRUDE $8.00
Item IN-PALAx3 3 DIFFERENT PALAS SILVER DRACHMS, circa 850-950AD VG-CRUDE $19.50




SILVER COINS OF THE HABBARID AMIRS OF SIND Wholesale prices available to dealers

Silver Dhamma of the Habbarid Amirs of SindhSind, located in what is now the south-eastern portion of Pakistan, was conquered by the Umayyad empire in 711AD during the reign of  Caliph al-Walid.  The Umayyad conquest was brought about by Sind pirates attacking Arab vessels and imprisoning Muslim widows and orphans. Sind became easternmost province of the vast Umayyad Caliphate which stretched from Spain to India.   By the late 9th Century the Habbarid (Hibari) Dynasty was able assert control over Sind, giving only nominal allegiance to the Caliph.  In 1010AD the Ghaznavids conquered Sind.  The coinage of the Habbarid of Sind (also known as the Amirs of Sindh) consisted of these small (10 to 11mm) silver Dhammas. The coins feature Arabic inscriptions on both sides.
Item SIND-AR SIND SILVER DHAMMA circa 870-1009AD F-VF. $7.00
Item SIND-ARx10 10 of the above SIND SILVER DHAMMAS circa 870-1009AD F-VF $39.50


GHENGHIZ KHAN SIEGE COIN

Kuruzwan bronze Jital issued while under siege by Ghenghiz Khan in June and July 1221AD, Album #1971Ghenghiz Khan assumed command of his Mongolian tribe at age 13. By military tactics and terror his armies soon conquered much of China, Persia, India and Russia.  This bronze Jital was struck in Kuruzwan, a city in Central Asia, during June and July of 1221AD while the city was under siege by Ghenghiz Khan.   The city of Kuruzwan fell to the Mongols after about two months and the remaining inhabitants were slaughtered. As might be expected under such severe circumstances, the coins are crudely struck, with many being partially off-center or unevenly struck. This is one of the few identifiable "siege" coins of the Islamic world and is a scarce and interesting reminder of this violent period in history.  
GHENGHIZ GHENGHIZ KHAN SIEGE OF KURUZWAN, BRONZE JITAL, 1221AD (A1971) VG $49.50



NEWRARE SILVER COIN OF MANGUBARNI - FOE OF GHENGHIZ KHAN

Jital of Mangubarni 1221-1224ADJalal al-Din Mangubarni (Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Jalal-ud-din Mangubirni) achieved almost mythical proportions in his fight against Ghenghiz Khan.  He assumed command over the Khwarizm Empire in 1220AD, a kingdom in Afghanistan and Iran, after the Mongols executed his father. He assembled an Afghan coalition that decisively defeated the Mongols under Ghenghiz Khan. However the coalition quickly collapsed in arguments over the division of the spoils.  The Mongols then went after him, forcing him to retreat to the Indus River.  Tradition has it that though he was outnumbered 50 to one,  he continued his fierce attacks against the Mongols.  Eventually the Mongols closed in, and only he and a few followers were able to escape across the river into India.  There he assembled a new army, which was financed by raids on the treasuries of nearby kingdoms.  This base silver Jital was minted by Mangubarni, probably in Nandana, while he was in India, between 1221 and 1224AD.  In 1224AD he and his army left India.  He gained control over parts of Iran, and the Mongols resume their pursuit of him. The Mongols chased him through Iran, Iraq, Georgia and into Turkey. In 1231 he was probably killed by Kurdish bandits who did not know who he was!
Item MANGUBARNI SILVER JITAL OF MANGUBARNI, 1221-1224AD F-VF-spots $12.00



THE WOMAN WHO WAS A KING…AND A PAWN

Hungary Silver Denar of Maria, 1383-1385, H.569Mary, also known as Maria, was the daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland and Elizabeth of Bosnia.   Born in 1371, she was promised in marriage to Sigismund of Luxembourg when she was less than a year old.  Louis died when she was about eleven years old. Her parents arranged for her to be the “King” of Hungary, with Elizabeth acting as her regent.  The idea of a female king was unpopular with the Hungarian nobles and there was open rebellion. The nobles invited Mary’s distant cousin Charles III of Naples, to take the throne.  To strengthen Mary’s political position, Elizabeth then arranged for her to be engaged Louis, the brother of Charles VI of France.  In 1385 Charles III of Naples invaded Hungary from the south to claim his throne, and Sigismund invaded from the north to claim his bride.  Sigismund arrived in the capital of Buda and was married to Mary in October 1385, however he was not proclaimed king or given royal titles.  He quickly departed Buda, then mortgaged a large portion of the country.  Charles of Naples arrived in Buda in December 1385.  Mary, fearing for her life, resigned the throne and Charles was crowned King of Hungary.  In February 1386 Elizabeth had Charles murdered.   Mary was again proclaimed King with Elizabeth still in control.  In July 1386 Mary and Elizabeth were captured by supporters of Ladislaus, the son of the murdered Charles III.  Mary’s close confidants, who were traveling with them, were beheaded and their heads thrown into the royal carriage holding Mary and Elizabeth.  Mary and Elizabeth were held in captivity where Elizabeth was strangled in Mary’s presence. The nobility had Sigismund crowned King of Hungary on March 31, 1387.  One of Sigismund’s supporters, with the help of the Venetian fleet, freed Mary.  Mary was reunited with her husband and though co-ruler, had little influence on government.  In May 1395 Mary, although pregnant, ventured out alone on a hunt.  Her horse fell and landed on top of her, which induced labor.  She gave birth prematurely to a son.  Not having any assistance, Mary and her son died alone.  This attractive silver Denar of Mary issued between 1383 and 1385.  One side of the 13mm silver coin features a crown; the other side has a patriarchal cross.  It is an historic coin from a woman whose life sounds like something from the "Game of Thrones".
Item HU-MARY HUNGARY SILVER DENAR OF KING MARY, 1383-1385, H.569 VF $17.00



ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COIN SPECIAL  

A selection of three different identified ancient and medieval coins, including one silver coin.   The coins are primarily from India and central Asia.  This was one of my best sellers for almost 40 years, however  I had to discontinue it due to the lack of affordable ancients. Due to a very fortunate recent purchase, we can again offer this special deal.   Each coin is identified in its own envelope.  Coins grade Good to Very Fine.  Multiple lots will most likely contain the same coins.
Item 3A&M 3 IDENTIFIED ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS INCLUDING SILVER $9.75


ALSO SEE:

Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF AFGHANISTAN
Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF INDIA and PAKISTAN
MEDIEVAL COINS OF THE MIDDLE EAST
ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL CHINESE COINS



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All items are guaranteed to be genuine, unless clearly indicated otherwise.
NOTE:  All pictures are of a typical item taken from stock.  Because we have multiples of most items, the item you receive may not look exactly the same, however it will be as described.


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