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ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COINS

ANCIENT BENT-BAR COIN OF INDIA

India, Kuru & Panchala billon bent bar satamana coin, circa 450-340BCThis unusual bent-bar Satamana is one of the earliest coins of India.  It is believed to have been issued by the Kuru and Panchala realms in north-central India between about 450BC and 350BC.  The thick, slightly bent billon (low grade silver) are approximately 22 to 24mm long, 11 to 14mm wide and about 3mm thick.  A crude seven-armed “taxila” symbol is on either end on the concave side of the bar, the convex side is blank.  The coins are modeled after the silver Taxila and Gandhara bent bar coins used in what is now Pakistan.  It is an interesting and affordable example of a very early coin.
Item IN-BAR KURU & PANCHALA BENT BAR SATAMANA COIN, circa 450-350BC $29.50



NEWANCIENT CORINTHIAN SILVER STATER

Corinth silver stater, circa 350-300BC Corinth is located the narrow isthmus that separates the Peloponnese peninsula from mainland of Greece.  Its location made it a major center of trade and commerce in ancient Greece. In ancient times the city was famous for its temple of Aphrodite that employed thousands of temple prostitutes and its exorbitant luxuries. Saint Paul wrote two letters to the early Christian Church at Corinth. Its standard coin was the silver Stater which depicts the head of Athena wearing a Corinthian helmet on one side, and Pegasus flying on the other.  The coin is about 20mm and weighs about 8 grams. These Corinthian Staters were minted in Corinth and nearby cities from about 350 to about 300BC.  
Item CORINTH CORINTHIAN SILVER STATER, circa 350-300BC, VG-F $195.00



NEWINDO-GREEK SILVER DRACHM OF APOLLODOTUS II

Indo-Greek silver Drachm of Apollodotus II, 80-65BCThe Indo-Greeks descended from Alexander the Great, who conquered northern India in 326BC. They were the eastern most part of Hellenistic culture, ruling the area around Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India. They maintained Greek culture, religion and language, incorporating it with elements of Indian culture and language. Apollodotus II was one of the greatest Indo-Greek kings.  During his reign, from about 80 to 65BC he re-established much of the glory and territory of the Indo-Greek kingdoms.  After his death the Indo-Greek kingdom fragmented and soon disappeared.  This silver drachm of Apollodotus II reflects both the Greek and Indian culture.  The obverse depicts the bust of the king with a Greek legend that translates as "Of Apollodotus the Great, Savior & Father loving King".  The reverse depicts Athena Alkidemos standing and has the legend in Kharoshthi script that translates "Savior King Appolodotus".  He obviously thought well of himself.  The coin is approximately 17mm in diameter. It is an attractive and historic ancient silver coin from the farthest reaches of Greek culture.
Item IN-APOLLO INDO-GREEK SILVER DRACHM, APOLLODOTUS II ca.80-65BC $45.00



NEWINDO-SCYTHIAN TETRADRACHM OF APSAVARMA

Indo-Scythian billon tetradrachm of Apsavarma, circa 5-35ADThe Indo-Scythians migrated from central Asia into what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan, taking territory from the Indo-Greeks They adopted many aspects of Greek culture as well as adopting Hindu and Buddhist influences.  This 20mm billon Tetradrachm was issued by Apavarma in the city of Taxila-Sirskuh.  Aspvarma ruled the area around what is now the Pakistan-Afghanistan border from about 5 to 15AD (some sources place it as 15 to 45AD). It is likely he was subjected by Indo-Parthian king Gondophares as he adopted the title strategos (viceroy).  It depicts the king on horseback on one side and Pallas Athena on the other.
Item IN-APSAVA INDO-SCYTHIAN BI-TETRADRACHM, APSAVARMA, ca.5-35AD $32.00



WIDOW'S MITE FROM THE TIME OF CHRIST Restocked

Typical ancient Judean Widow's MitesThe story of the Widow's Mite can be found in the Bible in Mark 12:41-44.  For Jesus, the widow's small offering of her only two small coins was worth far more than the large contributions of the rich who gave only a small portion of what they had.  The mite, also known as the lepton, was the smallest denomination struck in ancient Judea.  The coin was first struck during the reign of Alexander Janeaus, and continued to be used during the time of Christ.  Most display an ancient anchor on one side and a wheel on the other, though other designs were used as well. Minters were paid by how many pieces they produced, not how well they produced them.  As a result the coins tend to be crude or off center, and every coin is different.   This historic coin of the Bible is over 2000 years old and comes in an attractive folder with a Certificate of Authenticity.
Item MITE ANCIENT JUDEAN WIDOW'S MITE FROM TIME OF CHRIST VG-CRUDE $29.95



NEWSILVER DENARII FROM DECADENT AND HISTORIC ANCIENT ROME

 Ancient Roman silver Denarii of Commodus, Septimius Sererus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Elagabalus graded by NGC
Ancient Roman silver Denarii of Commodus, Septimius Sererus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Elagabalus
Who needs Game of Thrones or racy novels when there is ancient Roman history?  Ancient Rome has more than enough sex, violence, action, intrigue and debauchery.  We recently acquired a nice group of high-grade ancient Roman silver Denarii of some of the more interesting emperors.  The coins are authenticated, graded and slabbed by the respected Numismatic Guarantee Corporation (NGC). The denarius is about 20mm.  It was the standard silver coin of Rome for almost 450 years until 238AD.  According to the Bible the daily wage for a laborer was one Roman Silver Denarius (Mark 20:1-2). These coins encompass some of the best and some of the worst Emperors of Rome.  Each of the coins is graded XF (Extra Fine) and is sealed in an NGC holder.  Reverse types will vary, and will generally feature mythological or military themes.
COMMODUS (177-192AD) was one of the bad boys of Rome. In 177AD, at age 15, he became the co-ruler of Rome along with his father Marcus Aurelius. After his father's death in 180 his reign became increasingly bizarre and dictatorial. Commodus is the emperor portrayed in the Academy Award-winning film Gladiator. He executed many leading senators as well has his chief ministers.    He had a passion for gladiatorial combat.  He would frequently fight in the Colosseum. For each appearance he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces (250,000 Denarii), straining the Roman economy.  He was noted for being exceedingly cruel.  Wounded soldiers, amputees and the handicapped would be rounded-up and placed in the arena for Commodus to slay, either with a sword or by bashing them to death. He would sometimes kill hundreds of exotic wild beasts a day in the arena.  His ego was unparalleled.  He believed himself to be a living god and erected numerous statues of himself.  He renamed the months of the year after himself, and even renamed Rome "Commodiana" and called the Roman people "Commodiani". He kept some 300 concubines, and at least one young boy who slept with him.  By 192AD his mistress and advisors had too much and had him choked to death by a professional wrestler after their attempt to poison him failed. His brutal misrule precipitated civil strife that ended 84 years of stability and prosperity within the empire. During the next year Rome fell into a civil war during which there were five claimants to be the Emperor of Rome. 
 SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (193-211), a hard-nosed general born in north Africa, defeated the other claimants to become the Emperor in 193.  He expanded the Empire eastward to the Tigris River after defeating the Parthians, as well as expanding the southern frontier in Africa.   He was joined in his campaigns by his wife,  JULIA DOMNA (193-217).  Though officially excluded from power, she was his primary advisor and held strong political influence. The troops adored her and she dispensed sage military advise.  In 198 Septimius Severus appointed their son
 CARACALLA (198-217) to be co-emperor, and in 209AD his brother Geta was also appointed co-emperor.  In 208 Septimius Serverus traveled to Britain to strengthen Hadrian's Wall and invade Caledonia (Scotland).  However, he died of an illness in early 211AD, making him one of the few Roman emperors to have a natural death.  Caracalla then had Geta and his supporters murdered and became sole emperor.  Julia Domna remained as an advisor and in a position of power.  His reign was marked by domestic instability and invasions by Germanic tribes. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors.  He dealt brutally with his opponents. Caracalla is also remembered for the magnificent bath complex in Rome, and for extending Roman citizenship to nearly all free men within the empire - though he was probably trying to raise the money needed for his own lavish spending. Caracalla was assassinated in 217AD during his campaign against Parthia.  A soldier that had been denied a promotion stabbed him to death when the emperor stopped to urinate. The prefect of the Praetorian Guard then declared himself emperor.   Upon hearing the assassination, Julia Domna, who was suffering from breast cancer, committed suicide by starving herself to death. Her sister, Julia Maesa, however instigated a revolt, greased by enormous bribes, that made her 14-year-old grandson   ELAGABALUS (218-222) the Emperor of Rome the following year.  Elagabalus held little interest in the military, or affairs of state, and showed total disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. He replaced the traditional head of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter, with the deity Elagabalus, of whom he had been high priest. Elagabalus married and divorced as many as five times in his short life, including twice to a Vestal Virgin, which was a flagrant breach of Roman law, as well as to a man.   Edward Gibbon wrote that he "abandoned himself to the grossest pleasures and ungoverned fury".  He lavished favors on male courtiers thought to have been his lovers. He would prostitute himself in taverns, brothels and even the imperial palace.  The stereotype of the decadent Roman orgy derives from the court of Elagabalus.  By 222AD, at age 18, his eccentricities had taken their toll on his popularity.  He threatened to execute members of the Pretorian Guard who he felt supported his cousin, Severus Alexander.  In response the Pretorian Guard assassinated Elagabalus and made Severus Alexander emperor. 
Item ROME-COMMODUS ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS OF COMMODUS, 177-192AD NGC XF $145.00
Item ROME-SEPT.SEVERUS ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS OF SEPTIMUS SEVERUS, 193-211AD NGC XF $140.00
Item ROME-JULIA-DOMNA ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS OF JULIA DOMNA, 193-217AD NGC XF $135.00
Item ROME-CARACALLA ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS OF CARACALLA, 198-217AD NGC XF $145.00
Item ROME-ELAGABALUS ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS OF ELAGABALUS 218-222AD NGC XF $150.00
Item ROME-DENARIUS-SET5 ALL 5 OF THE ABOVE ROMAN SILVER DENARIUS 177-222AD NGC XF $695.00



THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY IN ANCIENT ROME - A SET OF 12 BRONZE COINS

Set of 12 Ancient Roman coins in folder - The Rise of Christianity
In the 300 years between the death of Jesus and the death of Constantine the Great, Christianity went from being the nascent belief system of a dozen disciples to the official religion of the mighty Roman Empire.  This remarkable collection tells the story in coins.  Gallienus issued the Edict of Toleration, making Christianity legal in the Empire for the first time.  Claudius II Gothicus reversed this decision, persecuting Christians in the realm.  Constantine I was the first Christian emperor.  he and Licinius I issued the Edict of Milan in 313, decreeing that all Christians in Rome must be treated benevolently.  Constantine's sons; Constantine II, Constantinus II and Constans maintained their father's policy.  Only Julian II, called the Aspotate by the Church, attempted to revert to paganism, but by then it was too late.  By the time of Valentinian, Valens and Gratian, Rome was officially Christian; indeed, those three emperors converted barbarians to Christianity.  This set of 12 ancient Roman bronze coins includes coins of Gallienus (253-258), Claudius II Gothicus (268-270), Constantine the Great (307-337), Licinius I (308-324), Constantine II (337-340), Constantinus II (337-361), Constans (337-350),  Donstantintius Gallus (351-34), Julian II the Apostate (360-364), Valentian I the Great (364-378), Valens (364-378) and Gratian (367-383).  After the Fourth Century Rome was often ruled by more than one emperor at the same time.    The obverse of each coin shows the portrait of the emperor at the time the coins were minted.  The reverse shows pictures and phrases depicting current concerns, history and mythology.  The coins grade Very Good or better.  They are guaranteed genuine and are packaged in an attractive descriptive folder.
Item CHRISTSET12 RISE OF CHRISTIANITY IN ANCIENT ROME: 12 BRONZE COINS IN ALBUM $99.75




ELEPHANT ON ANCIENT SATAVAHANA COIN

Satavanahana, Early Satakarni dynasty, potin Karshapana depicting elephant, circa 30-107AD, MAC 4941+An elephant is depicted on obverse of this ancient Karshapana of the Satavahana (Andhra) Empire. At its peak the empire controlled most of central and southern India.  The reverse depicts the Ujjain symbol, also known as the Satavahana symbol. The symbol comprises of four circles attached to the ends of the bars of a cross.  The coin was issued by the early Satakarni dynasty between about 30 AD and 107AD.  The Satavahana Empire ruled most of central and southern India and engaged in trade with the Roman Empire. The coin is struck in a copper and lead alloy called potin.
Item IN-SATAV SATAVAHANA KARSHAPANA, ELEPHANT, circa 30-107AD MAC4941+ Fine $19.50



BRONZE COIN OF THE KUSHAN EMPIRE Wholesale prices available to dealers

Kushan India, Bronze Tetradrachm of Soter Megas (Vima Takha) 80-105ADThe Kushan Empire covered much what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India from about the first to the third century AD.  They grew wealthy controlling trade centers on the Silk Road and on the Indus River and incorporated elements of the Greek, Roman, Chinese, Persian, Indian and other cultures into their lives.  Their coins incorporate Greek designs and often use a corrupted Greek alphabet in the legends.  We offer a well made bronze Tetradrachms of Kushan king “Soter Megas”.  The title "Soter Megas" means Great Savior.   The coin, which grades VG to Fine, shows the Greek style diademed bust of the king on one side, and the king on horseback on the other.  The king thought of himself as being so great, he did not need to put his actual name on the coin.  Until quite recently however, scholars did not know who really was!  It is now believed that he is Vima Takha who succeeded Kujula Kadphises, ruling from 80AD to 105AD.  He expanded his empire into what is now Pakistan.
Item SOTER KUSHAN BRONZE TETRADRACHM,  SOTER MEGAS 80-105AD VG-F $9.75





ANCIENT KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER COIN 

Kushano-Sassanian copper coins, Kobad, circa 330-350ADAfter the split of the Kushan Empire around 230AD, the eastern portion became a vassal state of the Sasanian Empire is known as the Kushano-Sassanians.  It controlled parts of what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan. It remained until about 350AD, when the area was conquered by the White Huns (Hephthalites).  These small, crude copper coins, sometimes called a Drachm or a unit, were minted between about 241 and 350AD. They are some of the last coins of the Kushano-Sasanians. They are modeled after the Sasanian silver Drachm, however are smaller, much cruder and made of copper.  One side features the bust of the king, the other features a Zoroastrian fire altar. 
Item KUSHAN-SAS KUSHANO-SASANIAN COPPER DRACHM, ca.241-350AD G-CRUDE $5.00



COINS OF THE KIDARITES

Kidarite copper coins, circa 350-500ADThe Kidarites were nomadic Huns that conquered the Kushano-Sassanians sometime around 350AD.  They are sometime referred to as the “Red Huns”.  Very little is known about them.  They controlled an area that now is made up of parts of northern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, as well as parts of TajikistanUzbekistan and Turkmenistan. . They ruled the region until about 500AD. The Kidarites appear to have been a confederacy of warlords, many of whom issued coins.  Not having had a tradition of coinage, they copied the basic designs and fabric of the coins they found in circulation without an apparent understanding of the meaning of the designs. Some of the coins are modeled on Sassanian or Kushano-Sassanian coins depicting the bust of the king and a fire altar.  Other coins are modeled after Kushan or other Indian coins and feature various deities or a standing king. There is a wide variety of extremely crude and primitive Kidarite copper coins.  These scarce, crude Kidarite copper coins are unusual pieces from a little know Hunnic tribe.
Item KIDARx1 KIDARITE COPPER UNIT, circa 350-500AD, CRUDE  $5.00


FINAL RISE AND FALL OF THE SASANIAN EMPIRE

Sasanian Empire silver Drachm, Hormizd IV 579-590ADSasanian Empire silver Drachm, Khusru II (Khosrow II), 590 & 591-628AD
The Sasanian Empire ruled Persia and nearby territories from 224 to 651AD.  It engaged in endless wars with the Roman-Byzantine Empire during most of its over 400 years of existence.   Hormizd IV came to power upon the death of his father in 579.  Much of his reign was spent fighting against the Byzantine Empire and the Turks. He angered the Zoroastrian clergy by his tolerance towards the many Christians in his Empire, and angered the army after dismissing his popular general Bahram Chobin.  In 590 he was overthrown, blinded and killed in a palace coup led by Khusru II (Khosrow II) uncles, who then put 20-year-old Khusru II on the throne.  Some months later Bahram Chobin overthrew Khusru and claimed the throne himself.  Khusru then allied himself with Byzantine Emperor Maurice, who helped him regain his throne in exchange for Persian Armenia and western Georgia. There was a short-lived peace between Sasanian and Byzantine empires.  In 602 Byzantine Emperor Maurice was murdered by his General Phocas, who assumed the throne.  Khusru used this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire.  He regained the territory that he had given up, then proceeded to take Damascus, Jerusalem and Egypt from the Byzantines, expanding the Sassanian Empire to its greatest extent.  In 626 he attempted to Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, but was defeated.  The Byzantines then invaded and plundered the Persian heartlands and advanced towards the capital.  In 628 Khusru's son had his father killed and sued for peace with the Byzantines. The war left both sides militarily and economically exhausted.   A civil war then broke out between various court factions over control of the Sasanian empire which further weakened and destabilized the country.  About the same time the Arab Muslim forces began their attacks on the Sasanian empire, and by 651 conquered what had only a few years earlier been the largest and most powerful nation on earth. 
   The Sasanian drachm is a large, thin silver coin.  One side of the coin pictures the king.  The other side shows two priests in front at a fire alter, an allusion to the official state Zoroastrian religion. It widely circulated throughout central Asia and its design elements were copied by other nations for hundreds of years.  The Sasanian silver drachms often show weak areas. The coins are thin and the dies were relatively high relief, so parts of the designs are poorly struck. We offer coins of Hormizd IV that grade Fine to Very Fine, but may show a few weak areas.  We also have coins of Khusru II that show minimal or no wear, but have major weak areas caused by the poor minting techniques.
Item SAS-HORM SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM, HORMIZD IV 579-590 F-VF-weak $29.00
Item SAS-KHU SASANIAN SILVER DRACHM, KHUSRU II 590-628 XF-VERY WEAK STRIKE $25.00




SILVER DRACHM OF THE PALAS OF BENGAL

Palas of Bengal silver Drachms, circa 850-950ADThe Pala Dynasty arose in Bengal India in the mid-eighth century after a period of anarchy.  They were astute diplomats, military conquerors and scholars.  They established and promoted universities, built grand temples and monasteries, their missionaries established Buddhism in Tibet, their army was noted for its corps of war elephants and it had an extensive navy.  These silver Drachms of the Palas were struck during a period of dynastic decline between about 850 and 950AD.  The designs of the coins are based on the Sasanian Drachm, which had not been stuck for hundreds of years. Each generation created new coins by copying the designs of the crudely made coins already found in circulation.  One side had the head of the king.  The other side had a fire altar. By the time the Palas came to power the coiners had no concept of what the original coins looked like, resulting in a design that bears little resemblance to the original.  Every coin is different, and every coin is crude.
Item IN-PALA PALAS OF BENGAL, SILVER DRACHM, circa 850-950AD VG-CRUDE $8.00
Item IN-PALAx3 3 DIFFERENT PALAS SILVER DRACHMS, circa 850-950AD VG-CRUDE $19.50




MEDIEVAL SILVER COINS OF THE HABBARID AMIRS OF SINDH 

Sindh silver Damma of Abdullah ca.884-913ADSind silver Dhamma of Ali, circa 973-987AD  Sindh (Sind) is located in what is now the south-eastern portion of Pakistan.  The Habbaris were Arab traders and merchants that settled in Sindh in pre-Islamic times.  Despite living in India for hundreds of years and marrying locals, they maintained their Arab identity, language and customs.  By the mid 9th century AD they were able to assert control over Sindh, paying only nominal allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph. The coinage of the Habbarids of Sind (also known as the Amirs of Sindh) consisted of  small (10 to 11mm) silver Dammas (Dhammas) that feature Arabic inscriptions on both sides.  In 1026 Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud conquered Sindh.  We are pleased to offer silver Dammas of two of the Habbarid sultans of Sindh.  Abdallah I, who ruled from about 884 to 913AD, and Ali, who ruled from about 973 to 987AD
Item SINDH-ABD  SINDH SILVER DAMMA, ABDALLAH ca.884-913AD VF $8.00
Item SINDH-ALI SINDH SILVER DAMMA, ALI ca. 973-987AD VF $7.00

NEWANCIENT SILVER COIN OF INDIA WITH A PHALLIC SYMBOL
OR IS IT HEAVEN AND HELL?

Chaluka Gadhiya Paisa (silver drachm) circa 1000ADThere is debate among numismatists concerning the meaning of the design of this unusual coin.  This clear, well-struck silver coin was issued by the Chalukya Empire in Gujarat region of western India around 1000 AD.  The coin is generally referred to a Gadhaiya Paisa or a silver Drachm.  The design appears to be loosely based on the Sasanian Drachm of hundreds of years earlier. The original coin was a thin half-dollar sized coin depicting the king on one side and a fire altar on the other.   Each generation of coin engraver copied designs from coins in circulation, without seeing what the original design or knowing what it was.  Over time the coin evolved into a thick dime sized coin and the design took on new meanings. Some claim that what was the head of the king turned into a phallic symbol (so could you call the king a dick-head?)  Others claim  the coin is a Zoroastrian portrayal of hell and heaven.  Hell is represented shown by the soul suspended head downward, with a spike driven through the eye, surrounded by snakes and demons.  The other side represents heaven. The lines and dots on the other side represent the sun, moon, stars and the Chinwad Bridge which souls must cross to enter heaven.  Either way it is an unusual and reasonably priced ancient silver coin.
Item IN-CHALUKA CHALUKA SILVER DRACHM, circa 1000AD VF $18.00



NEWDEBASED GOLD STATER FROM HINDU KASHMIR

Kashmir base gold stater, Harsha, 1089-1101AD MNI 185 ffThis base gold Stater was issued by Harsha, who was the king of Kashmir from 1089 to 1101AD.  The crude coin is approximately 15mm.  One side has a crude depiction of the Goddess Ardoksho enthroned.  The other depicts the king standing.  A bit of gold is visible but the coin is mostly copper.  Harsha was imprisoned for plotting to kill his father the king, because he felt his allowance was insufficient.  After the death of his father he escaped from prison, overthrew his younger brother who had been given the throne and proclaimed himself king.  He was cultured and handsome but a corrupt and cruel man with extravagant tastes who engaged in incest.  Initially the kingdom did well economically, resulting in a large volume of coinage.  He soon became unpopular due to increasingly heavy taxation to support his indulgent lifestyle and failed military ventures.  Even night soil was taxed!  In 1099 his kingdom was ravaged by famine, plague and widespread lawlessness. He continued to plunder his own subjects and even looted the temples. He was murdered in 1101 when he tried to take control of land from the feudatory landlords
Item KASH-HARSHA KASHMIR BASE GOLD STATER, HARSHA 1089-1101, MNI 185 ff,  VG-CRUDE $19.75


GHENGHIZ KHAN SIEGE COIN

Kuruzwan bronze Jital issued while under siege by Ghenghiz Khan in June and July 1221AD, Album #1971Ghenghiz Khan assumed command of his Mongolian tribe at age 13. By military tactics and terror his armies soon conquered much of China, Persia, India and Russia.  This bronze Jital was struck in Kuruzwan, a city in Central Asia, during June and July of 1221AD while the city was under siege by Ghenghiz Khan.   The city of Kuruzwan fell to the Mongols after about two months and the remaining inhabitants were slaughtered. As might be expected under such severe circumstances, the coins are crudely struck, with many being partially off-center or unevenly struck. This is one of the few identifiable "siege" coins of the Islamic world and is a scarce and interesting reminder of this violent period in history.  
GHENGHIZ GHENGHIZ KHAN SIEGE OF KURUZWAN, BRONZE JITAL, 1221AD (A1971) VG $49.50



NewSILVER COIN OF THE GOLDEN HORDE FROM CRIMEA

Golden Horde, Crimea, silver Dirham of Toqtu (1291-1312AD)The Golden Horde was a Mongol state descended from Genghis Khan.  They grew wealthy from trading and raiding.  This crude silver Dirham was struck in Crimea (Qrim) by Toqtu (Tokhtogha) who ruled from about 1291 to 1312.  He consolidated power and territory from rival Khans and by 1310 he controlled some 2.3 million square miles (6 million sq.km.) in what is now Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.  He was the last non-Muslim Khan of the Golden Horde.  The slightly irregular silver coin is approximately 18mm.  Though not heavily worn, the coin is poorly struck with part of the design missing or unclear. 
GOLDHORD GOLDEN HORDE SILVER DIRHAM, TOQTU, 1291-1312, CRIMEA, F-Crude $32.00



NEWFRIEDRICH THE IRONTOOTH OF BRANDENBURG

Brandenburg, Fredrick II, the Iron, silver bracteate hohlpfennig 1440-1470 Saurma 4675This silver Bracteate Hohlpfennig was issued by Friedrich II (Frederick II) who was the Prince-Elector of the Margravate of Brandenburg from 1440 to 1470. It is believed that he was nicknamed "The Irontooth" or "The Iron" due to his great strength and power.  Friedrich strengthened Brandenburg forming the basis of what was to become Prussia and the German Empire.  The rights of the towns and nobility were curtailed and he regained Neumark (East Brandenburg) from the Teutonic Knights.  The citizens of Berlin revolted when he attempted to build a palace on Colin island in the Spree river.  Friedrich prevailed, built the castle that became the Stadtschloss (Berlin Palace), and the rights of the city were greatly curtailed. The Stadtschloss was torn down by East Germany in the 1950's and is now being rebuilt.  The silver Bracteate Hohlpfennig is an extremely thin and single sided coin wtih a raised rim.  The design is embossed from the reverse.  This coin is approximately 16mm in diameter and features an eagle with outstretched wings.  Because the coins are so thin and fragile, few survive today.
Item BRAND BRANDENBURG SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-1470, Saurma 4675 F-VF $39.00


NEWMEDIEVAL CITY COINS OF THE MARGARVIATE OF BRANDENBURG

Brandenburg, City of Stendal, silver Hohlpfennig, Friedrich II 1440-1480, Bahrfeldt 19  Brandenburg, City of Stendal, silver Hohlpfennig, Friedrich II 1440-1480, Bahrfeldt 19
These medieval city Hohlpfennigs were issued during the reign of Friedrich II Irontooth, who was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1440 to 1470.  A Hohlpfennig is a thin silver coin, about 16mm in diameter with a raised rim. The coin design is embossed on one side and incuse on the other. They were widely used in Northern Germany in the late Middle Ages.  The coins depict the arms of the city in which they were struck. The coin from Stendal depicts half an eagle on the left and four diamonds on the right.  Stendal is located about 78 miles (125km) west of Berlin. It the joined Hanseatic League in 1358 and purchased the privilege of minting from the Brandenburg margraves in 1369.  In 1456 Friedrich II founded a convent for Augustinian nuns in the city, which today is a museum.  The Hohlpfennig from Frankfurt an der Oder features a plumed knight's helmet. Frankfurt (Oder) is located about 50 miles (80km.) east of Berlin on the Oder river on what is now the German-Polish border.  It was founded as a Polish town.  In 1249 it became part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg,  The knight's helmet design makes this one of the more interesting Hohlpfennigs.
Item STENDAL STENDAL SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-70, Bahrfeldt 19 VF-crude $29.50
Item FRANK-O FRANKFURT (ODER) SILVER HOHLPFENNIG, FRIEDRICH II 1440-70, Bahrfeldt 16 VF-crude $33.50



NewSILVER COINS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

The Ottoman Empire was a vast, rich, powerful empire that at its peak spanned three continents, including much of southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in what is now Turkey, and lasted until 1922. Its early coinage consisted primarily of small, poorly struck silver coins.  We are pleased to offer some of the coins of some of the Ottoman's most important early Sultans. Because the coins were produced in large quantities and have not been widely collected, they are still quite reasonably priced. 
Ottoman, Murad II silver Akce, Serez Mint, AH825 = 1421ADMurad II became Sultan in 1421 at the age of 16 upon the death of his father. He portrayed himself as a simple soldier and did not partake in the royal excesses, which is well as he spent most of his reign at war.  The Byzantines supported pretenders to undermine his regime.  Though he laid siege to Constantinople, he was unable to conquer the city. He later declared war against Venice, Serbia and Hungary.  In the 1430's he gained vast territories in the Balkans.  After defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies in the Battle of Varma in eastern Bulgaria in 1444 he abdicated the throne in favor of his 12-year old son Mehmet II (Mehmed II).  A palace revolt forced Murad II to return to the throne in 1446.  In 1448 Murad defeated the Christian coalition in the Second Battle of Kosovo.  He then turned east to defeat Timur's son, Shah Rokh and the Karamanids.  In 1450 he led his army into Albania but fell ill and died. This silver Akce of Murad is dated AH825 (1421 AD). It was minted at Serez, which is now Serres in Macedonia. The coin is about 11 to 14mm in diameter.  
Ottoman, Mehmet II silver Akce, Edirne Mint, AH865=1451ADMehmet II, also known as Mehmed the Conqueror again ascended to the throne in 1451.  He strengthened the Ottoman Navy.  He built and strengthened Ottoman fortresses on the Bosporus, first to extract high tolls from passing ships, then to cut off all nautical support to Constantinople.  In 1453, after a massive 57-day siege he Constantinople, bringing an end to what was left of the once mighty Roman Empire.  He encouraged the Greeks and Genoese who had fled the city to return by guaranteeing their safety and returning their houses.  Christians, Jews and Muslims from across the Ottoman Empire were brought in to repopulate the city, which he made the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmet allowed his subjects a considerable degree of religious freedom, provided they were obedient to his rule. In 1454 he began a conquest of Serbia. Serbia was an Ottoman vassal state but was not been paying tribute and made an alliance with Hungary.  His army advanced as far as Belgrade, but was unable to take the city   In 1459 he attacked Wallachia, which was controlled by Vlad III Dracula, the Impaler, who also refused to pay tribute that was due.  The Ottoman army suffered massive losses to Vlad, who impaled thousands of captured Ottoman troops.  Eventually Vlad was betrayed by one of his best friends, retreated to the mountains and Mehmet was finally able to gain control of Wallachia.  In 1463 Mehmet conquered Bosnia after a dispute over the tribute owed the Ottomans and made it the westernmost province of the Ottoman Empire.  Shortly thereafter the Ottomans started a protracted war with Venice that was instigated when an Albanian slave of the Ottoman commander of Athens stole money, converted to Christianity and fled to a Venetian fortress.  A peace treaty was finally established in 1479 when Ottoman forces reached the outskirts of Venice.  He also successfully engaged in conquests of Moldavia, Albania, Genoese Crimea and the Crimean Khanate (which was one of the last remnants of what had been the Golden Horde).  It is no wonder he earned the title Mehmet The Conqueror.  In 1480 he began a campaign Rhodes, Southern Italy and possibly Egypt, but died, possibly of poisoning in May 1481, much to the relief of all of Europe. This silver Akce of Mehmet II was struck in Edirne in what is now Turkey. The coin is dated AH865 (1451 AD) and is about 10mm in diameter.
Ottoman, Suleyman I the Magnificent, Silver Medini AH925 = 1520ADSuleiman the Magnificent (Suleyman I) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566.  During his long reign he greatly expanded his empire, conquering much of the Middle East, North Africa, most of Hungary and laid siege to Vienna twice.  He instituted major reforms in education, taxation and criminal law.  He was an accomplished poet, goldsmith and patron of the arts.    This silver Medini (3 Akces) of Suleiman was struck at the Amid mint, in what is now Diyabakir in Turkey. Diyabakir, located on the Tigris River is considered the "un-proclaimed capital of so-called Turkish Kurdistan".  The silver coin is approximately 13mm in diameter and is dated AH926 (1520AD).  It is an historic coin of an historic monarch.
Item TR-MUR2 OTTOMAN, MURAD II SILVER AKCE, AH825=1421AD, SEREZ MINT, F-crude $15.00
Item TR-MEH2 OTTOMAN, MEHMET II SILVER AKCE, AH865=1451AD, EDIRNE MINT, VF $8.00
Item TR-SUL SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT SILVER MEDINI AH926=1520AD, AMID MINT VG-CRUDE $6.00



ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL COIN SPECIAL  

A selection of three different identified ancient and medieval coins, including one silver coin.   The coins are primarily from India and central Asia.  This was one of my best sellers for almost 40 years, however  I had to discontinue it due to the lack of affordable ancients. Due to a very fortunate recent purchase, we can again offer this special deal.   Each coin is identified in its own envelope.  Coins grade Good to Very Fine.  Multiple lots will most likely contain the same coins.
Item 3A&M 3 IDENTIFIED ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS INCLUDING SILVER $9.75


ALSO SEE:

Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF AFGHANISTAN
Click HereANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL COINS OF INDIA and PAKISTAN
MEDIEVAL COINS OF THE MIDDLE EAST
ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL CHINESE COINS



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All items are guaranteed to be genuine, unless clearly indicated otherwise.
NOTE:  All pictures are of a typical item taken from stock.  Because we have multiples of most items, the item you receive may not look exactly the same, however it will be as described.


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Joel Anderson
PO Box 365
Grover Beach, CA 93483-0365
USA
Phone: 1 805 489 8045 | Fax: 1 805 299 1818
Email: orders@joelscoins.com

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